State Natural Reserve «Taimyr» established by Decree of the Government of the RSFSR on February 23, 1979 N 107. Decree of the Russian Federation of July 9, 1994 N 1087-r set up a branch " Arctic " Reserve.
reserve consists of four sections ( "main tundra territory", "Arctic", "Ary-Mas", "Lukunsky"), located in Khatanga and Dickson districts Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory . The total area of the reserve in accordance with the certifying documents is 1781928 hectares.
The reserve has the status of a biosphere reserve on the basis of the decision of the Bureau of the International Coordinating Council of UNESCO's " Man and the Biosphere " 25 October 1995 adopted by the Council on behalf of the program.
Under the authority of the reserve as its buffer zone is complex reserve of regional importance " ". Bikada
Currently, the reserve of the Russian Federation subordinated to the Ministry of Natural Resources and is a member of FGBU " Reserves Taimyr».
About 8,000 years ago, the land freed from the Taimyr ice, flora and fauna appeared similar to modern. It rushed descendants of Neolithic hunters, fishermen who lived on the edges of glaciers and Arctic seas.
The permanent population has appeared on the Taimyr Peninsula at the latest V millennium BC. e. (In the Atlantic period). During this period the climate was warmer and wetter than at present. The boundary of the forest and the tundra was 300-400km north CONTEMPORARY. In the central part of Taimyr have grown pine and birch tree.
The ancient hunters came here from the south-east, with the district. Lena. Their seasonal parking found on p. Pyasina and pool Kheta and Khatanga rivers. They used tools made of siliceous thin plates, and did not know of pottery. Such a culture is called Mesolithic.
The oldest known inhabitants of Taimyr settlements found on the left bank of the river Tagenar, 5 km from its confluence with the river Volochanka, on the way in which it was very easy to move from the basin. Yenisei River basin. Lena. The people who lived here were hunters and fishermen. The main object of hunting - Reindeer and fishing - white salmon, whitefish, whitefish.
People who settled in the North, for thousands of years have managed to adapt to the harsh climatic conditions of the Arctic, to create their own material culture and use in their own natural wealth of nature.
During the XVI-XVII centuries. It was performed Russian conquest of Siberia. Taimyr Pyasida territory or, as they called this land Russian explorers in the XVII century, was part of Mangazeysky County, established in 1601, stretching from the west to the Ob River. Anabar in the east. The administrative center of the " zlatokipyaschey sovereign fiefdoms " Mangazeya became the city, built on the right bank of the river. Taz, on-site fishing encampments explorers-coast-dwellers, on the lands of the Nenets and Enets tribes. During the XVII century, this city in the Arctic Circle was not only a center of sable and crafts, but also a center of Arctic navigation, where Russian explorers moved to the North and East Siberia.
In the XVII century appear on the Taimyr first Russian settlements , wintering - Khantayskoye, Khatanga, Hetskoe, Avam, Dudinka. On tributaries of the system. Pyasina in the 20s of the XVII century Russian explorers entered the river Hetu and Khatanga. Leaving them at the river-kochah ships that dragged dragged through a small bridge between the rivers and Avam Volochanka, whose name and comes from the word & ldquo; drag & rdquo ;. 1626 is the year of conditional appearance of the first Russian settlements in the Khatanga River.
Discovery Hydrographic Expedition of the Arctic Ocean (1910-1915 gg.) Fundamentally changed the existing idea of sailing the Northern Sea Route and helped transform it into a smoothly functioning transport Arctic highway.
Even in Soviet times, Kara transport operations 20s for delivery to Siberia industrial products and export of furs and bread became an experimental basis for the transformation of the Northern Sea Route to the summer track, acting on all its length.
In 1930, the national districts were formed in the places of settlement of indigenous peoples of the North. Originally it called the Taimyr District National District and was a member of the East-Siberian region with the center in Irkutsk. It was included in its composition Since 1934, with the formation of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. At the Taimyr were formed in addition to Dudinka and Khatanga - two areas: the Ust-Yenisei (with the center in the village of Sock and then in Karaul) and Avam (with the center in the village Volosyanka). In 1932, 7650 people lived in the Taimyr Autonomous District.
The difficult economic situation tundra, forced the pace of collectivization caused the uprising of the Dolgan and Nganasan in Avam and Khatanga districts in April 1932. Participants in these events in 1938 were repressed, and their reindeer transferred to the district farms.
The development of the Northern Sea Route in the 30s, the construction of the Norilsk Combine contributed to the emergence of ports on Dixon (1934) and Dudinka (1935). Dudinka port, Dudinka steel support transit point for industrial construction in Taimyr.
In 1977, the Taimyr National Okrug was renamed in the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Region (TAR). And in 1992 with the signing of the agreement of the Federal District received the status of an independent subject of the Russian Federation, remaining in respect of the administrative-territorial part of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
In 2006, the merger of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous District and the Evenk Autonomous District on the territory of the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous District was formed Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District.