Putorana Reserve – one of the largest in Russia, with an area – 1887 thous. Ha. It is located in the polar region of Krasnoyarsk Krai, in the middle of a major mining country – Putorana plateau. The main natural attractions Putorana Reserve: unique landscapes mesas (plateau) in height of 1000-1500 meters above sea level, giant tectonic canyon basin lakes, many waterfalls, including the highest in Russia (108 m).
The main objects of research and conservation: included in the Red Book of Russia: Putorana subspecies of bighorn sheep, fronted goose, white-tailed eagle, falcon, yellow-billed loon, red-breasted goose, Bewick's swan, kloktun, osprey, golden eagle, Curlew, baby.
The reserve is the central link in the system of protection of unique natural complexes Putoran and one of the main elements of the environmental system in Central Siberia and Taimyr. In 2010, the reserve was included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.
The polar day lasts far north Putoran from 16 May to 29 July (74 days), polar night – from November 25 to January 13 (56 days). In the middle of the plateau duration of the polar day 53 days – from 27 May to 13 July, the polar night & ndash; 31 days (from December 5 to January 5).
Winter on Putoran long and severe. The steady shift to the negative temperature occurs in late September – early October. At the same time begins to form and snow cover. The average January temperature in the past 25 years, minus 27,5° C.
The snow cover is about 8 months. His failure occurs on average in early June. By the end of the second decade of June snow cover disappears. In adjacent to the plateau areas, the snow lasts for 20-30 days longer.
Spring begins in April as part of a thaw, but the ice on the lakes is until June. Transition temperature at 0° (positive values) takes place in late May – early June.
Summer is short, but warm. The average July temperature in the past 25 years, 14,2° C.
Autumn begins in late August with the arrival of frost.
Permafrost developed in most of the area of the plateau, but there are some parts of taliks tied to river valleys and lake basins. Power permafrost increases from the bottom of the valley (80-150 m) in high watersheds (300-400 m). In the summer, the upper part of the permafrost thaws, forming the active layer to a depth of 2 meters.
Lake - the most remarkable component of the country's mountainous terrain Putoran. They occupy around 10% of the plateau. Nowhere in the world in a limited area there are so many long (50-150 km) and deep (50-420 m) lakes in Putoran. Although the surrounding plateau plains area covered by shallow lakes, up to 30 or even 60%, the volume of water in them is much smaller.
On the plateau of more than 25 thousand lakes. The longest and deepest lake emerged in large basalt cracks. These lakes – the largest in Siberia after Baikal and Teletskoye and very similar to the Norwegian fjords, among the only sushi. The depth of most lakes in the western part of the Putorana at 50-300 m below sea level. The largest lake, crashed into the western slope Putoran: Lama, Deep, Keta, Khantayskoye. In the north, where Putorana abruptly terminates in a straight line to the Yenisei-Khatanga lowlands or lakes, hills or otchlenennyh not of outstanding aesthetic importance attached to the territory numerous waterfalls that differ both in form and in the power flow. Impressive their scale and number (the highest concentration in the territory of Russia, and possibly in the world). There is a waterfall of 108 meters, one of the highest in Russia.
The longest and intricately curving river – Kureyka. The history of this river is closely related to another ancient river that existed before the rise of Putorana territory and crossed almost the entire average, the highest part of the plateau is now. It began north of Lake Ayan and flowed to the southeast through the modern middle of the valley and rivers Kureyka Yadong and Embenchime the pool Lower Tunguska. In the same vein near the modern watershed survived the so-called residual lakes – Monomakli, Omutachi, Yadong.
Along the south-western part of the plateau found another ancient and later also rebuilt Valley – Vivi-Agatskaya. Its terraces, unlike in the sandy valley Embenchime-Ayan, stacked clay deposits. Here are having fractured the lake – Vivi, Nyakshingda, Agata North.
Putorana Reserve – it is the only specially protected areas in the vast expanses of Central Palearctic region, where the typical northern taiga fauna is extraordinarily diverse, enriched with typical mountain views, uniquely combines Eastern and Western elements, and is composed of many rare and endangered species.
The variety of landscapes of the plateau Putorana predetermined increased the wealth of the local fauna. In general, the fauna of terrestrial vertebrates characterized by a combination of tundra, taiga, widespread and typical mountain species.
The richness and specificity of fish fauna is supported by a stable connection to the drainage system unique local river basin Yenisei, Pyasina, Khatanga. Total within the reserve and its buffer zone mentioned about 40 species and subspecies of fish belonging to 13 families. The lakes and rivers of the reserve noted a number of species of loach genus Salvelinus, whitefish (family Coregonidae) and grayling. As part of the fish fauna Putorana Plateau – 4 endemic species of loach: boganidsky, Tolmachev, Dryagina, Taimyr. A number of species - Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), humpback whitefish whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus pidschian), whitefish (Coregonus muksun), Outrigger (Prosopium cylindraceum), Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in the region form a unique local forms.
Class amphibians presented at Putorana plateau only Siberian salamander (Hynobius keyserlingii). This type is characteristic of the taiga throughout Siberia. In the north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is very rare. The only time he was found in the central Putoranah on Lake Harpicha.
The birds nesting on the Putorana Plateau, found on almost every continent, visiting during migrations and wintering dozens of countries around the world. Thus, the study and preservation of Putoransky birds and their habitats becomes rank of a major international problem.
The reserve and adjacent parts of Putorana found 12 bird species included in the IUCN Red List and the Russian Federation: the yellow-billed loon (Gavia adamsii Gray), red-breasted goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis Pall.), fronted goose (Anser erythropus L.), bar-headed goose (Eulabeia indica Lath.), Bewick's swan (Cygnus bewickii Yarr.), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus L.), kloktun (Anas formosa Georgi), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos L.), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla L.), merlin (Falco rusticolus L.), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus Tunst.), black crane (Grus monacha Temm.).
Putorana – the main nesting area gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in northern Central Siberia.
Putoransky population of Lesser White (Anser erythropus L.), live in the reserve, perhaps the largest known at present, is located on the southern limit of the breeding range of the species.
A unique find nesting in the territory of Putorana plateau black crane and curlew, baby, because these rare species are endemic Zaeniseyskoy Siberia are very limited and mosaic habitats and their distribution as a whole is still very poorly elucidated.
In the forest and the northern taiga meets Putoran typical taiga forest bird species and species associated with the edges and thickets of shrubs. Nai ¬ more typical representatives of the first group - stone Glu ¬ har (Tetrao parvirostris), hawk owl (Surnia ulula), three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus), Siberian Jay (Perisoreus infaustus), waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), Siberian Accentor (Prunella montanella), Talovka, brown thrush (Turdus eunomus), finch (Fringilla montifringilla), white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera). For the second group Naib & not; most characteristic Warbler, Bluethroat, Common Rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus), polar oatmeal. In addition, in areas where woody vegetation are numerous widespread white wagtail, common redpoll, prefers open meadow space citrine wagtail, Stonechat (Saxicola torquata), or tending to the sparse forests and woodlands clarified oatmeal-crumb. There are also birds during the nesting period associated with rocky habitats: Rough-legged Buzzard, House Martin (Delichon urbica), crows, gray wagtail (Motacilla cinerea). In the aquatic and riparian habitats, forest-tundra and northern taiga nesting black-and red-throated divers, bean goose, whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), Teal Teal (Anas crecca), wigeon, pintail, tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), black scoter, smew (Mergus albellus), long-nosed, and large (Mergus merganser) merganser, Ringed Plover, Wood Sandpiper, the carrier (Actitis hypoleucos), and the Asian snipe snipe, Whimbrel, herring gull, Arctic tern. Putoran mammalian fauna is very diverse, despite the extreme weather conditions of the region, chief among them - a long harsh polar winter and typically mountainous terrain. A total of Putorana plateau and the surrounding adjacent areas of its foothills inhabited by 39 species of mammals, belonging to 5 orders: insectivores (Siberian weasel, water shrew, shrews), carnivorous (wolf, fox, fox, brown bear, ermine, weasel, Siberian weasel, sable, wolverine, otter, lynx), even-toed ungulates (moose, caribou, bighorn sheep), lagomorphs (hare, northern pika), rodents (flying squirrel, red squirrel, chipmunk, forest and arctic lemming, muskrat, water rats, voles – red, red-gray, housekeeper and Middendorf). Except for the reindeer and Arctic fox, all of them – permanent residents of the plateau. The mammalian fauna forest tundra and northern taiga Putoran is mixed, as it consists of the types of penetrating here on the one hand from the tundra, and the other - from the forest zone.
The variety of habitats within the landscape Putoransky can comfortably coexist taiga, tundra, shirokorasprostranёnnym species, as well as specific types related to their dissemination to the mountains, low mountains, rocky or stony habitats. Such animals as the brown bear, wolf, wolverine, weasel, hare, reindeer, elk – widely distributed here. A similar distribution pattern have some small mammals: the average shrew, northern pika, red and red-gray voles. Muskrat, common fox, river otter, Putorana bighorn sheep inhabit only a few areas. Within the boreal habitat among mammals predominate widely common in the region, northern pika, hare hare, red and red-gray voles, stoats, wild reindeer. In taiga spaces spring and autumn runs most of the migrating reindeer. During migration dramatically increases both the number of deer, and following their herds of wolves, brown bears, wolverines. In winter, the taiga Putoransky sharply increases the number of foxes, many of which migrate here from the plains of tundra Taimyr. From small mammals northern taiga and forest-tundra are most common: the average, ploskocherepnaya, tundra shrew, wood lemming, red and gray and red voles, vole housekeeper and Middendorf. Within Putoransky northern taiga and the forest border areas are many small animals. So Collared and Siberian lemmings live here on the southern edge of their ranges. In contrast, the northern limit of its distribution here are vole housekeeper, Eurasian Water Shrew and ploskocherepnaya shrew.
The Putorana Plateau occupies a unique endemic subspecies of bighorn sheep (Ovis nivicola borealis), listed in the Red Book of Russia. Areal Putorana bighorn sheep (Bighorn) is located in the central part of the Putorana Plateau and hundreds of kilometers away from areas spread of other subspecies of bighorn sheep. Reserve took custody of 28% of the area Putorana bighorn sheep.
On the territory of Putorana occur annually one of the most ambitious of the known phenomena in the life of large mammals: the seasonal migration of the largest in Eurasia Taimyr population of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Her various experts estimate the number from several hundred thousand to one million individuals. An essential part of its range is the Putorana Plateau, where the migratory routes of almost the entire population. Reindeer are Putoranah for 5-6 months a year. The front of the passage of reindeer herds is relatively narrow (110-150 km), you can talk about the peculiar «migration beds» ;.
The migrating herds of deer attract many predators - brown bears, wolves, wolverines. Brown bears form clusters that rivals in size the most numerous in Eurasia clusters Kamchatka bears from spawning rivers.
The Putorana Plateau, due to its inaccessibility, is the northernmost natural natural conservation area sables in the period when the rest of Siberia, about a hundred years ago, he almost disappeared completely.
The Putorana Plateau - a unique zoogeographical boundary, the northern limit of distribution in Central Siberia column Mustela sibirica, sable Martes zibellina, lynx Felis lynx, moose Alces alces, northern pikas Ochotona hyperborea, flying squirrels Pteromys volans, red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris, forest lemming Myopus schisticolor, Goshawk Accipiter gentilis, ordinary and Tetrao urogallus capercaillie Tetrao parvirostris, grouse Tetrastes bonasia, ordinary Cuculus canorus and deaf cuckoo Cuculus saturatus, hawk owls Surnia ulula, bearded Strix nebulosa and Ural Owl Strix uralensis, woodpeckers, many species of shorebirds and passerines.
It is very specific fauna of mountain tundra (char) Putorana plateau. From small animals constantly it lives in the mountain tundra only one species - Middendorf voles. In different seasons in mountain tundra periodically appear large animals, such as reindeer, Putorana bighorn sheep, brown bear. The mountain tundra nests of 16 species of birds. The core gornotundrovoy avifauna make common to all the mountains of northern Eurasia Rock Ptarmigan, Dotterel, Horned Lark, Snow Bunting, Wheatear, and the usual mountains of North Asia Siberian Tattler (Heteroscelus brevipes) and the American Pipit (Anthus rubescens). The composition of the avifauna goltsy belt Putorana Plateau also includes species not directly related to the mountains and plains are typical inhabitants of Taimyr tundra. Among them, long-tailed ducks, white-tailed sandpiper, golden and Pacific Golden Plover, Red-throated Pipit, Bluethroat, Lapland Bunting. The largest breeding bird in the mountain tundra - American fad. His pair usually settle near each other, forming a kind of breeding populations. American horse inhabits mainly the lower parts of the mountain tundra, which is directly adjacent to the strip of mountain woodlands. One of the most characteristic mountain tundra waders – Dotterel. It occupies the top of the large gravelly mounds surrounded by a dry rocky moss-lichen tundra. Others prefer other habitats characteristic of sandpiper - Siberian Tattler: lichen-dryas tundra among large flat stone placers.
The exceptionally beautiful landscapes, rich flora and fauna of the lost world involve not only scientists, but also tourists, the curious and adventurous.
highways from Norilsk to reserve there. In winter, tourists throw a snowmobile. In this alone, especially the first time, it is not recommended: to find a place on the plateau is difficult to lift. In summer, the group delivered on the water: the river all vehicles are privately owned, so the shuttle, of course, comes at a price hard lovers of tourist attractions. There is an opportunity to get on a plateau on the helicopter, but this method is very limited by weather conditions, and it does not matter winter or summer in the yard, and, again, the thickness of the purse.
Climbers attract mesas (plateau), water tourists — giant tectonic lakes and numerous waterfalls.
In 2010, the reserve was included in the UNESCO list of World Natural Heritage Site.
Visit Putorana plateau without good equipment, adequate weather, dangerous activity. The climate is harsh. Ice on lakes coming in mid-July and early September reappears. Frosts in April may reach the level of minus 40 ° C. In summer, the average +12 ° C, but because of the constant winds uncomfortable. It may suddenly pour rain, even snow. The warmest month — July. So prepare to be careful: even in summer, take a warm gear, water and windproof.