The reserve is located at the junction of two physiographic areas: the Central Siberia and mountains of Southern Siberia represented Prilenskoye province and becomes an area of ??Baikal. The territory of the State Reserve «Olemkinsky» part of the taiga, the East Siberian taiga permafrost area.
The Reserve Located on the border plateau Prilenskoye Aldan plateau, including the division of the Aldan plateau - Upper Amginskogo high mountains, remnant Chuginskoe Lower mounting plate.
In the north of the Aldan plateau gradually becomes Prilenskoye plateau. The southern boundary Prilenskoye plateau within the reserve is held at the latitude: the mouth of the Cross River - Valley Amga, her right tributary - Onhoy river.
The reserve is located in the basin Olekma and many of its tributaries. Hydrological network is developed and presented 85 rivers and streams extended from 3 to 110 km. All the rivers belong to the basin of the reserve of the Lena River. Shipping is Olekma river flowing within the reserve for about 140 km. Olekma origins are in the southwestern part of Olekminsky Stanovik. This is one of the largest right tributary of the Lena River. For large rivers flowing through the territory of the reserve, should be attributed rivers Amga - length of 72 km and Tuolba - length of 81 km (in the territory).
The area of ??most small lakes. The lakes are located mainly in the bottoms of valleys and carts. They feed mainly on snowfields and a large part of the year are under the ice. Most of the lakes is the source of the rivers and their tributaries.
According to the general nature of the vegetation area of ??southern Yakutia in the province of light softwood middle taiga subzone. The majority of the plants belong to the boreal species. The main edificator is Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii), occurring here in a variety of habitat. She is accompanied by alder (Alnaster fruticosa), dwarf birch (Betula Middendorfii, B. Exilis et al.). By larch mixed with other species, in certain areas displacing her Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), Siberian pine (Pinis sibirica), Siberian spruce (Picea obovata). On sandy-loamy soils observed admixture of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). It places the development of modern forms of karst confined thickets of birch and aspen, forming a community with an undergrowth of elements oakwood type: Siberian mountain ash (Sorbus sibirica), svidiny white (Swida alba), bird cherry (Padus avium) and others. The floodplain poured in shoreline meets the fragrant poplar (Populus suaveolens), on sandy and sandy-pebble alluvium in the areas of cross-cutting and deep neskoznyh taliks grows chosenia (Chosenia arbutifolia).
In the middle reaches Olekma larch-spruce-pine forests with an admixture of birch, aspen and poplar form more or less large tracts among the dominant larch taiga.
The reserve is a permanent home to the main game animals: sable, squirrel, bear, moose, reindeer, musk deer, red deer. The varied landscape and rich flora of the reserve life provides more than 40 types of mammals and over 200 species of birds. In the reserve there are a number of rare and endangered species of birds listed in the Red Book of Russia: white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus)), the eagle owl (Bubo bubo (Linnaeus)), the osprey (Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus)), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus Tunstall ), merlin (Numenius madagascariensis Linnaeus), the golden eagle (Aquila clanga (Linnaus)), Far Eastern Curlew (Numenius madagascariensis Linnaeus), black crane (Grus monacha Temminck), black stork (Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus)), Baikal Teal (Anas formosa Georgi) and others.
Mammals are represented by 6 units: predators (brown bear, wolf, wolverine, lynx, fox, otter, mink, weasel, sable, ermine, weasel), even-toed ungulates (elk, red deer, reindeer, deer, musk deer), lagomorphs ( hare, northern pika), insectivores (common shrew, shrew medium, small and 4 species), rodents (squirrel, flying squirrel, muskrat, vole red krasnoseraya, bolsheuhaya, dark, housekeeper, wood lemming) and bats ( brown long-eared bat, Daubenton's bat, northern bat, Myotis Ikonnikova), 5 species of mammals included in the Red Book of Yakutia.
The fauna of reptiles and amphibians poor species composition, which is typical for South Yakutia. Of the animals found in the reserve: Siberian salamander, moor, Siberian, Far Eastern frog, common viper, lizard. All of them (except the Siberian frog) in the Red Book of Yakutia.
Fish fauna of the reserve is typical of the upper reaches of the Lena River. The most common inhabitants of the ponds are dace, 2 species of minnows, whitefish, trout, grayling, lenok, burbot, perch, pike and others.
At the reserve and buffer zone for 133 km along the banks of Olekma 8 revealed inscriptions, parking 22, Two burial ancient human Paleolithic.
In the vicinity of rivers and Malaya Dzhikimda Kurung found parking Paleolithic human.
1. Route - Rafting on the river. Olekma.
The route 120 km.
Quick route description: the route throughout the Scenic bank. Olekma with bizarre rocks - outliers, extensive pebble and sand bars, powerful naledi- taryny, an abundance of flowers, berries and mushrooms. Numerous archaeological pamyatniki- parking, burial, and the altars, petroglyphs. Depending on the time of year you can watch and take pictures of various wild animals and birds. Anglers athletes have the opportunity to catch a spinning lenok, grayling, trout.
Recommended Target audience visitors (students, bird lovers and so on. d.): fans of boating, naturalists, photographers.
Construction equipment Route: at over Route It has in the buffer zone in the estuary. Taryn - transitional izbushka- beams.
2. The route - nature trail through the valley of R. Small Dzhikimda.
The length of the route - 7 km.
Quick route description: the route runs along the old reindeer herding the trail from the river. Olekma to Aldan. The trail starts from the scientific to the hospital Dzhikimda tract " first Ayan ". Along the trail there is a change of landscapes, characteristic of the light-coniferous taiga, forest lake, crossing a small taiga river. In Ayane possibly in June or July see frost.
Recommended Target audience visitors: guided tour for school children, researching forest ecosystems.
Construction equipment Route: Start Route - research hospital Dzhikimda two residential houses, summer kitchen, bath
3. Route - Nature trail at the mouth of the river. Most Dzhikimda.
Quick route description: the route runs along the floodplain Olekma of scientific Hospital Dzhikimda to the mouth of the river most Dzhikimda. In the route is supposed to cross five creeks. The route runs along the berries (red bilberry and golubichnikam), is expected to see the variety of forest ecosystems.
Recommended Target audience visitors (students, bird lovers and so on. d.): School route in the form of ecological trails.
Construction equipment Route: Start Route - Hospital Dzhikimda two residential houses, summer kitchen, bath.
National Nature Reserve " Olekminsk " It was established in 1984 as the first in Yakutia Reserve.
The basis when justifying the creation of the reserve was that the description of the territory is a typical plot of the mountain taiga forests of the south of Yakutia, which occur in different combinations all major tree species characteristic of forests in southern Siberia. Here is the northeastern border of the Siberian cedar. In some places it forms a true cedar, in admixture with other species also found, with the exception of dry pine forests, almost everywhere. In the south-east of the reserve, at altitudes of 800-900 m n. y. m., with a cedar Siberian spruce pine-fir form green moss forest.
In comparison with the rest of the territory of the reserve Olyokminsky District is characterized by the greatest landscape diversity, including in comparison with Charo-Tokko Mesopotamia. Here are all the natural systems of the floodplain to alpine, which allows us to consider Olekminsk Reserve as a reference boreal forests of South Yakutia.
The reserve is located within the administrative area Olekminsk and removed from the city Olekminsk at 180-200 km. The nearest town - Evenk village of Kudu-Kuel is on reserve in the 80 km downstream Olekma. The western boundary of the reserve runs along the right bank Olekma South - from the River Tay, Heiko (tributary of the river. Olekma) is in the latitudinal direction of the foothills Stanovoi range. The eastern boundary runs along the ridge Amginskogo Goltsovoye and coincides with the boundary between two administrative districts - Olekminsk and Aldan. The northern border along the river. Bederdyah enters the watershed Olekma Tuolba the river, crosses it and goes to the upper river. Amga. The area is a compact forest rectangular shape measuring approximately 140 x 60 km.