National Nature Reserve «Gydansky» was established October 7, 1996.
Total area - 878,174 hectares.
Number of sites - 5 (5 clusters).
Security zone — 150,000 hectares.
The reserve is located in the north of Western Siberia Gydan Peninsula and the islands of the Kara Sea on the territory of Taz district of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.
The territory of the reserve account for the peninsula north of the peninsula Gydan: Yavay, mammoths, reindeer, northern part of the peninsula Gydansky adjacent to the coast Yuratskoy lips; island of the southern Kara Sea: Shokalski, Pestsovoye, deer, Cursed, exactly. Protection areas constitute straits: Gydansky, deer, lip Yuratskaya.
The northern boundary of the reserve runs along the northern coast of the island Shokalski, deer; Eastern - on the administrative border with the Taimyr Autonomous District; South - on the north-eastern part of the peninsula Gydansky and the southern peninsula Yavay; Western - on the east coast of the Gulf of Ob.
The rivers are fed almost exclusively by snow. Flood peak falls on the end of June - the beginning of July. The magnitude of rise in water level is usually 2-5 m, in some rivers reaches 7-9 m. The duration of the flood is usually not more than a month, the maximum flow of water passes over 1.5-2.5 weeks. Summer in most of the river water is not enough. Freeze-up occurs in late September - early October. The minimum water level is observed in winter (winter low water), many small rivers freeze to the bottom, the water is only remains thermokarst pits.
Erosion activity of watercourses often leads to the formation of lakes and descend to their place of vast, wetland basins (hasyreev). Many hasyrei completely flooded at high water, and dry by August. At the bottom hasyreev widespread residual lakes depth of 1 - 1. 5 m, is constantly changing its shape.
A significant part of the coastal waters of the reserve account for Ob, Gyda and Yuratskaya lips (lip Yuratskoy water area with surface area of ??900 km & sup2; fully part of the waters of the reserve).
The vegetation cover
Currently, the river valleys and in the northern part of Laida Gydan peninsula is dominated eutrophic Arctic permafrost fractured grass (sedge, cotton grass) and moss-grass marshes, as well as the roll-polygonal arctic sedge marshes hypnum with shrubs and lichens on rollers. Notes intrazonal spread shrubs (willow, dwarf birch), not only within the typical tundra, but in the arctic tundra subzone in the reserve. Along the river valley Esja-Yaha bushland almost reach the coast Yuratskoy lips, where they do not overcome only band marches, periodically poured into the hot flashes.
The work on the study of the flora of the reserve have not been conducted, but the botanical research in a relatively close to the reserve areas (Yenisei Bay, the island Sibiryakova, the Yamal Peninsula) suggest that in the territory of the reserve there are at least 120 species of vascular plants. Herbarium, collected in 2002, includes 20 species of vascular plants belonging to 13 families. Among them - poppy polar, two species of saxifrage, cranberries, polar and arctic willow. Buttercup sulfur-yellow, marsh saxifrage, novosiversiya ice made in the Red Book of the Tyumen region (2004) and YANAO (1997).
a relatively young area north of Western Siberia and youth meets its fauna: the most ancient remains of the mammoth fauna here are aged less than 50 thousand years, with the most recent remains of mammoths with Gydan Peninsula and adjacent areas - slightly less than 10 thousand years. So, mammoths lived here before the start of the Holocene, during which formed the modern soil and vegetation and fauna.
Two species of mammals - polar bear and walrus Atlantic listed in the Red Data Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN-96) and Russia. On the reserve passes calving reindeer Yamal-Gyda population listed in the Red Book of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. The status of this population is estimated as critical.
A polar bear on the reserve is found both in winter and in summer, on the islands and Shokalski Deer marked polar bear dens.
In the coastal waters are common: beluga, ringed seal, bearded seal (bearded). The rare species should be noted orca, met in 2002 near the western coast of the island Shokalski.
The reserve nest and spend a large amount of molting waterfowl. Only on the island Shokalski molt and hatching 6-8 thousand white-fronted geese.
Of the birds found in the reserve in the Red Book of Russia made: Yellow-billed Loon, small (tundra) swan, fronted goose, red-breasted goose, white-tailed eagle, peregrine falcon, white gull. The Red Book of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug made: Barnacle goose, common scoter. The rare species inhabit: Eider, black scoter, Purple sandpiper, Asian snipe.
Normal: Black-and red-throated divers, Brant, King eider, Red-breasted Merganser, pintail, Long-tailed Duck, Rock Ptarmigan, plover, ruff, medium skua, the mayor, the eastern broody, arctic tern, some species of passerines: Lapland Bunting, Snow Bunting , White Wagtail, East Siberian Nightingale (Bluethroat).
After the reserve passes the East Atlantic Flyway waterfowl and water birds flying along the northern coast of Eurasia.
Reptiles and amphibians in the reserve is not live.
From the bony fishes in reservoirs reserve inhabited by white salmon, arctic char, peled, whitefish, Humpback whitefish, whitefish Siberian, grayling; in the coastal waters of the dominant species is cisco ordinary, plain sculpin, flounder occur polar, polar bib, saffron cod, salmon.
Currently, the reserve have been some species of mammals (brown bear), birds (pintail, short-eared owl), fish (perch, pike), plants (polar willow, cloudberries), certain types of fungi, the northern border of the area which, took place further south.