The Reserve " Galich'ya Mountain " consists of six sections separated, scattered among the developed and cultivated spaces of the Lipetsk region: a steep right bank of the Don - Galichya mountain and its left bank - Morozov Mountain - steppe Tracts in Zadonsk district; steppe tract Bykov Neck - partly in Zadonsk, partly in the Lipetsk region, forest tract Plyuschan - Vorgolskoe and Voronov Kamen - in the valley. Vorgol in the Lipetsk region. Of great interest is also the nursery of birds of prey, located on the reserve.
Reserve " Galich'ya Mountain " is located in the Lipetsk region, 45 km south-west of the city of Lipetsk.
The reserve today - is the largest regional environmental research institution.
A comprehensive study of the nature of the Upper Don, the development of measures for the protection of vegetation and fauna of the region, monitoring of protected objects - these are the main directions of the research.
Summary of the reserve " Galich'ya Mountain ".
One of the first reserves in Russia.
Founded April 25, 1925.
It consists of sections Galichya Mountain, Mountain Morozova, Plyuschan bulls neck, Raven Rock and Vorgolskoe total area of ??231 hectares.
It has a diverse flora and fauna, including 974 species of vascular plants, 838 species of mushrooms, about 10 000 species of invertebrates and 296 species of vertebrates.
Saves on its territory 24 species of insects, 7 species of vertebrates, 5 species of plants and 1 species of fungi listed in the Red Book.
It is an important environmental and scientific center. By herbarium collections and invertebrates - the largest in the region.
The results of years of research of natural features Galichya Mountain, North-Don relic area and Upper Don region as a whole, made on the basis of the reserve are reflected in more than 500 scientific articles and several books. The reserve is an important center for environmental education. It is visited by many tourists every year, it serves as a base for training and work experience students VSU and other higher education institutions.
One of the most important trends in the development of nursery birds of prey, which is located on the reserve, is the work of the staff to revive the forgotten traditions Russian Falconry . For this purpose, specially trained for hunting birds used in the same demonstration submissions (" falcon show ") for visitors to the reserve. Such an exotic spectacle always leaves an unforgettable impression on tourists!
The flora of the reserve of special interest are rare and relict plants, occurring mainly in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus, Altai, the Alps, in the southern steppes and semi-deserts of Eurasia, in the boreal forests of the taiga type of European North. Finding them in Upland forest in isolation from the main range is relic and evidence of natural conditions of bygone geological epochs. Among these plants shiverekiya Podolsky, skullcap squat Onosma simple, dendrantema Zavadsky, bloodroot Don. . .
Galichya mountain. Morozov Mountain.
Twenty kilometers north of Zadonsk on the Don bend are two reserve tracts. The right slope of the Don Valley, steeply to the river fifty-meter ledge, for a long time is called Galichya mountains. She commanded in 1925, with an area of ??19 hectares. The main attraction of this tract - Devonian limestone rocks, which have become a haven of rare plants. Among them shiverekiya Podolsky, Asplenium ruta-muraria, a young Russian, bloodroot Don, squat skullcap, ephedra dvuhkoloskovaya, istoda Siberian, alyssum Gmelin. Total Galichya mountain flora includes 650 species of plants.
On the opposite bank of the Don is Morozov Mountain. This area of ??100 ha was commanded in 1941. The gentle slopes of the mountains are covered Morozova oak and birch, which become more steep sections in woodland mosaic scrub and steppe meadows. Pridolinnoe plateau occupied forb-feather grass steppes and deposits with a reducing meadow-steppe communities. The flora Morozova mountains there are 609 species of plants. Unique nizkoosochkovye petrophytic steppes of this area, rich in many rare and relict plant species: cotoneaster alaunskogo, Potentilla Don, feather grass, grouse Russian, lily Saranka. On the collection sites Morozova mountain you can see rare plants of the Central Chernozem - pine chalk, daphne Julia and Sophia, birch low, saffron mesh, brandushku Russian, tulip Bibirshteyna.
On Morozova mountain located manor of reserve administrative and residential buildings, the Museum of Nature, collectors' sites. There is also a nursery of birds of prey, which aims at breeding and reintroduction of Saker Falcon, Booted Eagle and other endangered species.
To the north-east of Galichya mountains, ten kilometers from Plyuschan located Bykov neck. It takes a sharp bend tract vast valley of the river dried up long ago Dry Lubna. His area of ??31 hectares, it commanded in 1963. In the Lipetsk region is the most typical and well-preserved section of the steppe, which is characterized by a concentration of relict plants. All the flora Tracts 650 known species of plants, 30 of which are rare and relict.
These are: Onosma simple, dvuhkoloskovaya ephedra, Astragalus pushistotsvetkovy, Helictotrichon deserted, sun-noctule, shrubs cotoneaster alaunsky rosehips kuymansky
and many others.
All of them are characteristic of more southern regions of Russia and bull-Neck preserved from the times of the ancient dry xerothermic epoch Holocene.
At 35 kilometers north of the mountains Galichya elevated right bank of the Don deeply dissects meandering canyon-like valley of a small river Plyuschanki. Originating from a dozen powerful springs, she almost immediately hides under the canopy of a vast forest, a few kilometers to bring their crystal-clear and always cold water to the Don. Part of this forest takes natural reserves Plyuschan. It has an area of ??40 hectares, it is protected since 1969.
Plyuschan - mostly forest tract. The steep slopes of the valleys of the Don and Plyuschanki, flat plateau covered pridolinnye grove with significant participation of birch and linden trees, with well-developed understory of hazel, spindle tree, buckthorn. Under their canopy relict plant mountain forests of Europe - fighter volkoboynik Gladyshev broadleaf, Peucedanum deer, sedge blunted.
On the narrow hillside between the Ledo-massacre strip and spukayuschimsya top forest stretched a unique " Chrysanthemum Meadow ", which represents, according to SV Golitsyn, " as it were, by some miracle, entered us in Central Russia Area Altai mountain meadows with lots of Siberian plants ". Among them dendrantema (chrysanthemum) Zavadsky tripartite core, bell Altai, Siberia istoda, clover Litvinov.
The slopes of the southern exposure have steppe appearance. Among the thickets of thorns and steppe feather grass grow cherries and beautiful, silky wormwood and broad, squat skullcap. Total tract observed in the flora of 716 species of plants.
Vorgolskoe. Ravens stone.
Ten kilometers from Eltsa in the lower reaches of small tributary of Rapid Pines Vorgol are two interesting in botanical and landscape relations section of the reserve. One of them - the Ravens Rock area of ??9.5 ha was commanded in 1963, and the other - an area of ??31 hectares Vorgolskoe - in 1969.
Both of these sites are located in a narrow, embedded to a depth of 60 m canyon-like valley. Cliffs framed alternately left, then the right of indigenous slope, forming a bend in the river tremendous exposure. Due to its unusual for the Russian Plain mountain valley Vorgol appearance with the Dnieper glaciation has become a haven of rare species of plants, more typical of the Alps and the Caucasus.
The accumulation of mountain ferns (kostentsa hairlike and postennogo, shitovnika Robert), high floristic diversity (457 known species of higher plants), the presence of rare species (shiverekii Podolsky, currants fluffy, drawn by bluegrass, thyme, limestone, cotoneaster alaunskogo) determined the particular value of these tracts and take them under protection.
In 1990, the reserve " Galich'ya Mountain " was established nursery of rare species of predatory birds listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. The main goal of his organization is to restore endangered populations of these birds. Currently, the nursery provides saker falcon, peregrine falcon, Imperial eagles, golden eagles and some other birds of prey.
After the XVIII century falconry has become out of fashion, but is currently still exists and has its fans, especially in the Middle East, Holland, England.
In the Arab countries of the favorite birds of prey is the saker falcon. He placed above the rest of his colleagues, falcons, as a universal predator, in the steppes and deserts of the most dobychlivy. In the old days in Turkmenistan can be purchased skilled trapping belobana for horse camel, and now in Saudi Arabia, some falcons price equal to the value of the car.
However, this popularity leads to a grim consequences. Due to the constant catch numbers belobana in general and Russia in particular is reduced every year. Falcon beloban protected by the state and listed in the Red Book. But of course, these measures are insufficient and in order to preserve populations of rare species of falcons in Russia are nurseries.
One of these nurseries for breeding birds of prey was opened in 1990 on the basis of the reserve " Galich'ya Mountain ".
The reserve is located on the right bank of the Don in the Lipetsk region and is best known for the richness and diversity of its flora and fauna, mysteriousness of many plant species. This is one of the first reserves in Russia, and although it is small in total area (even brought in a Guinness Book of Records as the smallest reserve in the world), it has long been famous for its unique flora, often more characteristic of mountain and boreal forests, forest-steppe than average strip.
An unusual and structure of the reserve: it includes six separate sections (tracts), each of which has its own landscape, a set of flora and fauna. Rocky cliffs and mountain tracts Galichya Voronov Stone, shady oaks and Plyuschan Vorgolskogo, feather expanse Bykova Neck cascading down a long hill light birch Morozova Mountains represent us all the beauty and diversity of nature in the area.
On the territory of the central manor of reserve and is one of the few in our country nurseries birds of prey. Total bred here about 14 species of rare birds, and every year their number increases. Ornithologists have recently decided to start nursery and breeding owls, who recently became a rarity for Russian forests. But the main direction of the nursery - a breeding and reintroduction falcons belobanov.