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Director: Baharev Pavel
Deputy Director for Research: Viktor Semyonov Valeriyovych
Deputy Director of Protection: cumulus Ivan Mikhailovich
Deputy Director of Environmental Education: Antipina Marina Nikolaevna
Deputy Director of PCD: Nassonova Larisa
Chief Accountant: Eskin Natalia
The territory of the reserve
Vishersky State Reserve established February 26, 1991 in the extreme north-east of the Perm region in Krasnovishersky Administrative Region. The territory of the reserve occupies 15.6% of the area Krasnovishersky area and 1.5% of the Perm region. According to various natural zonation schemes specified area is part of the Regions: "Kama", "Northern Urals", "Vishersky Ural".
In the Perm region territory occupied State Natural Reserve «Vishersky», least transformed man. This is due to the fact that the said areas are characterized by a sharp raised above all the rest of Visherskaya-Chusovskoy Urals.
Official birthday of the reserve is considered February 26, 1991.
The protected area Vishera Reserve is located on the extreme northeast of the Kama region, in the headwaters of the river Vishera. On the nature of the relief it is clearly divided into two areas: Western — hilly-ridged and Eastern — mountain.
Along the right bank Vishery pulled low (in the an average of 300 - 400 m) wooded ridges covered with thick fir-spruce taiga and small in area of ??secondary small-leaved forests that have arisen in the places windfalls, old logging and burnt.
Visherskaya left bank differs pronounced mountainous terrain. The minimum height of the area (350 - 500 m) are determined by river valleys, dominated by the medium and low mountain ranges with rather flat (usually not 20 - 25 & deg;) slopes and altitudes of 750 - 1469 m.
In the area between Vishery and Big Capelin are mountains Tulymsky Kamen (1469 m), Larch (878 m), Chuvaev (924 m) and Kuryksar (896 m). To the east of the river. Most Capelin rises most powerful central mountain knot Reserve, including Molebny Stone with the main peak Oyka-stunted (1322 m), Homgi-Nёl (1301 m), Olhovochny (1056 m), Mount Ant Hus-Oyka (1350 m), Lyapi -Sali-Nёl (823 m) and Isher (1331.8 m). To the south, on both sides of the marshy valley. Wells, there are mountains of Marty (1129.5 m), Put-Tump (945.5 m), Nyatay-Tump (932 m). The most remote and inaccessible mountain knot North Reserve, has long been the domain of former herders Mansi, combines several relatively low sloping ridges surrounding the sources of rivers Lopya, Visscher and Niols River. Among them are the mountain ranges: Lopinsky stone (932 m), Oshener (1080 m), Pasarvat-Munin-Nёl (893.5 m), Vishersky Stone (932.6 m) and Munin-Tump (924 m).
In the geological structure of the protected area participate karst rock — limestones and Silurian dolomites and the Devonian, and as marbles reef. Therefore, the upper Vishera is the area of ??karst development. Karst phenomena in the preserve presented craters, ravines, dry valleys, underground water sources and the caves. The most famous caves large protected area: «Lypinskaya», «Dry Lypinskaya», «Visherskaya-2» and «Visherskaya». Last on the length of stroke (about 1,200 m) is one of the largest in the the Northern Urals and inferior to the this respect only Divya cave.
The central artery Reserve — River Vishera — has a total length of 415 km is one of the largest and the most full-flowing tributaries of the Ural Kama. On the protected area Visscher passes its first 111 km, taking water dozens of small mountain rivers and creeks. The largest of the these are river Halsoriya — 17 km Niols River — 26 km, Capelin (with Large capelin) — 52 km, Small Capelin — 21 km Lopya — 28 km Lypiya River — 52 km Vёls — 112 km (from their first 36 km reserve and the buffer zone).
The fauna of the reserve " Vishersky " stands next to distinctive features.
One phrase they can be described like this: " Vishersky Urals is tiny " European Siberia ", Siberia in miniature! «It has almost everything that can be found on the northern taiga expanses, but just very slowly».
The most prominent brands zoological reserved Vishery are:
- the most southerly in Europe self-reproducing group of wild reindeer (about 300 individuals);
- the second largest in Europe grayling spawning group (over 250,000 mature fish);
- Siberian taimen, listed in the Red Book of Russia;
- high number of sable, marten, weasel, otter, American mink, wolverine, beaver and others. Hunting furbearers;
- a unique European-Siberian and Arctic fauna of birds, including a number of species, for example, Rock Ptarmigan, Golden Plover, Dotterel, browed Warbler Warbler, Lapland Bunting, Ural chernogorlaya accentor nests only on Vishersky Urals and nowhere else in the Kama.
Ichthyofauna Special Protected Areas p. Visscher no different species diversity. The most notable inhabitant heritage rivers, like everywhere else in the Northern Urals, is grayling (Thymallus thymallus). In addition it is constantly found only 5 species of fish: River minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), burbot (Lota lota), Stone loach (Barbatula barbatula), bullhead sculpin (Cottus gobio), and very rare in the upper reaches of the Siberian taimen Visherskaya (Hucho taimen) .
Below, the river fish species diversity increases dramatically. Already on the southern border of the security zone for the blind, grassy Visherskaya ducts (kuryam) periodically marked perch and pike, and in the shallow waters of the main channel of the river among the numerous shoals of minnows now and then flit lonely minnows. In some years, these fish are recorded and upstream. Occasionally reserved water comes ide. And one day, a hot water shortage in the summer of 2001, there was marked even bream. Yet summer ascents «black» fish on Protected Area p. Visscher is still very rare event.
Siberian taimen (laziness, Ural salmon) on the protected area p. Visscher small numbers. Separate mature specimens weighing 5 - 20 kg occasionally recorded visually by boat. Analyzing these few meetings, we can say that currently the highest point of the spread of the Ural region is salmon stows «Red Bicheva» and " Romanovsky Reach ". And on the 45 km stretch of the river from 71 square meters. thresholds to probably no more than 20 dwells mature fish. Small taymeshata - Lyonka occasionally fall into winter control traps installed on the migration routes of burbot in a river section p. Lypiya River. More regularly this fish starts dating far downstream Vishery.
The burbot in the rivers of the reserve is common, though not distinguished by large size. In control subglacial traps fall mostly small specimens weighing 100 - 300 grams. Polukilogrammovye copies are already a rarity. And the biggest fish caught on Lype five-year annual observations (2001 to 2005), weighed only 1.2 kg.
In the winter, rising on spawning burbot is the most active and prominent representatives of the local fish fauna. From November to February it is intensive upstream Vishera and its tributaries. Burbot migration peak falls in the middle of winter. On «Lype» the first individual who denies the eggs are recorded from the beginning of January. Very abundant from November to March after spawning burbot mostly rolled downstream.
River minnow (Vandysh) in reserved Vishera plentiful. In the first half of the summer powerful shoals of small schooling fish are sent to the upper river for spawning and subsequent feeding. The total number of migrants is often measured in tens and hundreds of thousands of individuals. In the summer, there are a bevy of minnows almost the entire river, with the exception of the uppermost sections, but they are the most numerous of 71 square meters. to the mouth of capelin. Mountain Visherskaya Vandyshev tributaries are much less common. In particular, a detailed examination of river bed. Most Capelin, held in August 2004, they were found only in one point - in a deep pit near the rock «Stove» (District Moyvinskih thresholds).
Stone loach (usynya) is a typical inhabitant of the rocky river bottom. Brownish, progonistoe body of this small (up to 15 cm in length) relative ordinary loach can be found among the rocks everywhere, both during stormy shoals and in tihovode. Stone loach - benthophage-eating larvae of benthic invertebrates, caddis flies, mayflies, stoneflies. In the small world of bottom stones, abounding these animals, it is usually no shortage of food. Despite this, the loaches are unevenly distributed along the river. Frequent stretches of the bed, where they are virtually absent. And sometimes vice versa, in virtually every suitable crevice between the stones hiding this cute bottom dweller. As shown by surveys conducted in 1999 - 2003, the number of the reserved area on usyni Vishery ranges from no to many hundreds of hectares to 4 - 6 individuals per 10 m2 shallow coastal waters.
Steer Sculpin (bullhead, Shirikov). Small (about 10 cm long) demersal fish. Like its neighbor, the mustachioed, bullhead indifferent to the flow rate, slow-moving, sensitive to the purity of the water and the extent of its oxygen content. Fully justifying its name, he loves to hide under rocks, even lays its eggs on the surface of the near-bottom boulders.
In the protected area Visherskaya upper features of the distribution and abundance of this species indicators about the same as that of the char. But unlike last sculpin meets regularly at the upper portion of the Vishera, above the mouth of the river. Halsoriya. In general, these small fish are often found side by side, and side by side in the same habitats.
The European grayling - Visherskaya most famous fish, which determines the established in the public mind the image of this river. On watercourses reserve the maximum size grayling are 55 - 62 cm with a weight of 2 - 2.5 kg and the age of 10 - 12 years. Such large individuals are extremely rare. Fish older age groups weighing 1 - 1.5 kg less than 1% of the total spawning stock. The main group of producers - grayling, under the age of 4 - 6 years, with a length of 25 - 45 cm and a weight of 150 - 400 g
The population of birds protected area truly unique. Ural mountain country is a natural frontier for many European and Siberian species. Here on the edge of its range are also many «northerners» - The inhabitants of larch taiga forests and tundra of the subarctic zone. Thus, a relatively small area of ??protected forests mountains and rivers can meet representatives of the feathered kingdom of several large geographical areas. At present, the list of birds protected areas includes 162 species, 105 of them nest in the reserve.
The Siberian and north views.
One of the most typical Siberian species inhabiting the taiga expanses Visherskaya is speckled thrush (Zoothera dauma). In summer, it is found throughout the forest zone with a uniform low density (0,2 - 0,5 pairs/km2). Since early May, broaching, plain whistles this exotic birds in our region give special coloring to the mysterious sounds of white Ural night.
Another very large feathery inhabitants of mountain woodlands - Black-thrush (Turdus atrogullaris). In the Northern Urals is insulated center of its range, far detached from the main area of ??settlement of the form located in Eastern Siberia.
The characteristic feathery «a Siberian» also the Red-flanked bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus). The reserve is quite numerous (1,3 - 8,3 pairs/km2). Often one point you can hear two singing males. Scope of the life of this movement in small birds - the lower tier of the trees and the forest floor, where it hunts for insects. In Siberia, Red-flanked bluetail occupies an ecological niche robins (Erithacus rubecula). On Vishera, these two types coexist. True Red-flanked bluetail meets almost the entire territory, and robin tied to the valley forests, where it can be quite large.
Background resident larch Siberia - Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus) lives on only in the Urals Vishersky woodlands and bogs. Further west, this tiny bird, which only smaller bead does not penetrate. Apart from the above Siberian birds on the reserve Vishera common spotted horse (Anthus hodgsoni), spotted cricket (Locustella lanceolata), white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera) and oatmeal crumb (Emberiza pusilla).
Among the species of northern need to highlight the Siberian Tit (Parus cinctus). In the forest reserve this rare bird in the Kama usually held together with very like her the most numerous taiga tit - Willow tit (pow) (Parus montanus).
Subarctic tundra species.
In the mountains Vishera Urals nests a number of representatives of the avifauna * zonal arctic tundra, are here in the extreme southern boundary of the breeding range. This is primarily tundra waders: Golden Plover (Pluvialis apricaria), common in most protected ridges, and Dotterel (Eudromias morinellus) - much more rare species recorded only on xp. Chuvaev, Larch and Yana-Emki.
In other permanent inhabitants of treeless peaks are partridges: tundra (Lagopus mutus) and white (Lagopus lagopus). In this case, «tundryanka» found in the Perm region only here - Vishersky to the Urals, while its larger cousin lives in the vast bogs around the forest Verkhnekamye.
Occasionally mountain tundra reserve recorded snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca), and of small passerine birds observed breeding Lapland Bunting (Calcarius lapponicus).
Southern, European and steppe species.
In general, birds «Europeans» protected area «Vishera» not typical and meet regularly here in only a few paragraphs. First of all, it is an area cordon «», Lypiya River where as a result of long-time logging and forest fires formed a vast array of secondary small-leaved forests. Only here you can hear the discordant song Green Tree warbler (Hippolais icterina) or provocative trill Wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix). In 1995 Lype suddenly sounded characteristic melodic «flute» stray male oriole (Oriolus oriolus), and once, in May 2002, in the adjacent birch forest was marked by white blue tit (Parus cyanus).
Occasionally in the reserve are recorded and other very rare in the Northern Urals. For example, in the summer of 2005 among juniper and mountain tundra wasteland hr. Chuvaev was marked quail (Coturnix coturnix). In August 2012 the cordon " Lypiya River " was awarded the hoopoe (Upupa epops), the northern boundary of the natural range which is located 500 km south of the southernmost borders on Perm region and the neighboring Republic of Udmurtia.
Along Visherskaya upper transit migration route passes many thousands of duck flocks. Therefore, at the time of spring migration research staff of the reserve have the opportunity to observe a wide variety of representatives ploskoklyuvogo tribe. First, even in mid-April, in the upper Vishera fly breeding here goldeneyes, mergansers and mallards. At the end of the month begins the most intense and massive flight of mixed flocks of ducks. At this time on the river banks there are numerous shoals Wigeons, teal, pintail, and Lutkov shirokonosok. The last stage of duck migration in the second half of May, when the river begin to sit down a bevy of black diving ducks - Common Scoter.
The most numerous duck nesting in the reserve is undoubtedly the goldeneye (Bucephala clangula). Since the second half of April on the river reaches, including melting ice and leads begin noisy courtship these bright birds. They are accompanied by a current in a low growl of black and white males, their fierce battle and chase each other. Gogol occasionally inhabited nests found along the river banks in the hollows dry inclined to water trees. High numbers also differ mergansers, large (Mergus merganser) and long-nosed (M. serrator). Summer growing up numerous broods of large fish-eating ducks constantly enliven their presence river and shallow expanses of coastal thickets mugs - nardosmy. From hiding place sometimes seen as krohalinaya band resting on the pebble beach or lined up in a human chain, preys on the shoals of minnows and grayling.
The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is not only constantly nest in a protected area, but also regularly winters.