commandments modern territory of the reserve and its buffer zone has its own history. Prior to the Russian colonization of Aboriginal people - Voguls (Mansi) - use this area as a hunting and fishing grounds to the beginning of the XVIII generally take care of the forest, as the main source of its existence. Cuttings were exposed small areas in the immediate vicinity of the property. Some trees, such as larch, were under the religious commandments. «larch trees, was one of the things they adored». Agricultural development of the area began in the middle of the XVIII century with the emergence of e. B. Ghalashki. Since the beginning of the XIX century the upper reaches of the forest Sulem, which were used to Verkhnetagilskaya plant also begins to pass SMOKING logging. During this period, the cedar forests were under the unwritten commandments. It is valued not only as a hunting and fishing and orehovoplodnye land, but also as a natural attraction of the area.
Forest space on the watershed ridge, which were far from the mining and factory settlements and therefore weakly affected by logging and fires at the end of the last century attracted the attention of the privileged Nizhni Tagil factory Society of proper hunting. It seeks to grant him the exclusive right to hunt here and devices animal kennels. In 1905 it received in rent for 12 years in the neighboring modern reserve Chernoistochinsk giving extensive area in the 18240 tithes (19,881.6 ha) with the right to regulated hunting and responsibilities for its protection. However, until the device nursery is not reached.
Even in Soviet times, from 1925 to 1931. at the same location there was a game reserve, where all hunting, except predation, was banned.
In 1946, on the initiative of the Urals State University created a vast Average Ural Reserve «», Visim area of ??56320 hectares. It consists of the least affected by the economic activities of neighborhoods Upper Tagil, hang-Utkinskoy, hang-Shaitansky and Ilim forest cottages. Stretching from the watershed ridge, where it is included and the highest point of the Middle Urals, the old man Stone (753 m). Reserve is an excellent testing ground for commandments and study the typical landscapes of Middle Ural lowlands.
In 1951, the Reserve has ceased to exist, and its pristine forests enrolled in intensive industrial operation. Particularly affected forests of western and north-east (Stone Old Man, Shaitan, downside) of its parts.
In 1971, on an area of ??9.5 thousand. Ha. on the part of the former territory was restored Visimsky Reserve. In 1973, its area was increased to 13.5 thousand. Ha, and for better protection of protected natural complexes was allocated buffer zone area of ??66.1 thousand. Ha. In 2001, due to the buffer zone area of ??the reserve increased to 33.508 thousand. Ha (including for the creation of a biosphere polygon allocated 7,750 hectares). The area of ??the buffer zone is now 46.1 thousand. Ha. The reserve is located on the lands of the urban district «Gornouralsky» and «Kirovgrad City» in the Sverdlovsk region. The name of the reserve is given by name in the nearby ancient village Visim, which is home to the great Russian writer Dmitriy Mamin-Sibiryak.
The reserve has been working on programs that meet international criteria for biosphere reserves, playing an important role in the sustainable development of the region. In 2001, the decision of UNESCO Biosphere Reserve granted the status.
Nature Reserve Visimsky
The terrain, water, rocks, climate and soil.
Visimsky Reserve is located in the lowland part of the Middle Urals. Most of the reserve is located on its western macro in the upper river. Sulёm (right tributary of the river. Chusovoi), part of the vast Volga-Kama basin; eastern part of the lower portion of the watershed ridge includes a start here p. Vogulka (left tributary of the river. Tagil), relating to the Ob basin. Thus, the protected area is at the same time in Europe and Asia, and water from the reserve flow into the Volga and Ob.
Lakes and raised bogs not, there oxbow lowland swamps.
Currently, the list of plants, lichens and fungi from the Red Book of different levels (Red Book of the Russian Federation, the Red Book of the Middle Urals, the Red Book of the Sverdlovsk region), protected Visim Reserve contains 46 species, including 26 species of vascular plants 5 species of lichens, 9 species of fungi. Among them are: vascular plants - Epipogium leafless, calypso onion, vetrenichka Ural, Ural tsitserbita, onions winning, Knautia Tatar, Siberian iris, lily martagon, peony, goose onions Nenets, Yellow Water-lily, Nuphar pumila, Corallorhiza trifida, Coeloglossum green, Dactylorhiza maculata, Dactylorhiza Hebrides, Goodyera creeping, Gymnadenia longhorned, Hammarby wading, heart-cache, cache ovoid, Malaxis univalent, Platanthera bifolia, vetrenichka recurved, Botrychium lanceolate; Lichens - Usnea blooming, Lobaria pulmonaria, stereokaulon palchatolistny, tuknerariya Laurer, Wila; Mushrooms - Lingzhi mushroom, sarkosoma spherical, Rigidoporus saffron-yellow, mushroom umbrella high, osinovik white, purple Cortinarius, Cajander tinder, tinder Lapland, blackberry staghorn.
An interesting feature of the reserve is that its territory is included in the zone of hybridization firs - Siberian and European, as well as in the south-western border of the continuous distribution of Siberian pine (cedar). Preserved in the zone temperature optimum lime and elm, the remnants of the Tertiary immoral forests are here on the waist-high altitude and latitude-zonal limit of its range. Along with these tree species of great interest is the group of herbaceous immoral relics determinants class immoral coniferous forests, including Lungwort, European Wild Ginger, Dryopteris male, rank spring and others. Species currently characteristic of European broadleaf forests. Ecotopia with a slightly lower heat supply, steady flow moisture, high humidity and low soil freezes indicates a group of immoral-boreal (subnemoralnyh) species: honeysuckle forest, volchnik ordinary, Athyrium female, boron spreading and other species.
Most of the species of vascular plants refers to a complex of boreal species, among which are especially interesting group taiga melkotravya that determine the class of the boreal forest reserve: Oxalis acetosella, Maianthemum bifolium, starflower European, Luzula pilosa and other species.
An important ecological and geographic group is the group of moderately boreal forest meadow of tall, genetically related to the sub-alpine meadows and woodlands: Calamagrostis trostnikovidnogo wrestler north, Campanula latifolia, rank Gmelin and others. Species.
The predominant type of vegetation forests, which occupy 87% of the reserve (according to forest management 2000). The territory lies within a mountain-taiga zone, shares due to temperature inversions in the two sub-zone: the lower - colder temperate boreal coniferous forests, upper - immoral and subnemoralnyh forests.
root is fir-spruce forests, preserved in the hills of Big and Small Sutuk, Long, Kulig. After the catastrophic windthrow in 1995 and two large fires in 1998 and 2010. indigenous forests remained at a very small area - about 1500 hectares. Currently, the reserve is dominated by small-leaved-coniferous forests of Siberian spruce, fir, birch Betula pendula and fluffy, at different stages of restoration successions. In the mountainous part of the reserve in the forests as an impurity present Siberian pine. Pine grows as a companion breed in areas of old burnt, as well as in the form of artificial plantations on the western border of the reserve. Siberian larch occurs singly in different parts of the reserve and almost not renewed. Aspen is represented by small circuits old-growth forests to logging and fire place and as an impurity in derivatives plantations. Lipa is present mainly in the form of undergrowth in most Heating habitats.
Meadows Nature Reserve, an area of ??240 hectares (less than 1% of the territory), most of them are secondary poslelesnymi. They are created by the labor of the local population in place of forests, meadows and mixed by under arable land. The oldest meadows are aged over 300 years. The primary can be considered a small clearing on the slopes, B. Sutuk with alpine mountaineer and reed grass trostnikovidnogo and tavolgovye and tavolgovo-reed grass meadows on riverine shafts p. Sulёm, kanareechnikovye meadows on its islands.
The list of animals from the Red Book of different categories - federal and regional (Red Book of the Russian Federation, the Red Book of the Middle Urals, the Red Book of the Sverdlovsk region) is 11 species of invertebrates and 26 species of vertebrates.
Among the mammals noted 5 types (flying squirrel, Pond bat, northern bat, otter, common hedgehog). The bird fauna is represented by 9 species, among which there were individual meetings spotted eagle, osprey (in the 50s of XX century. Jack), stone curlew. Meet periodically whooper swan, eagle (do1995 of the nest, but as a result of windfall tree with nest fell), white-tailed eagle, curlew, Dipper.
meet regularly - falcon, ordinary honey buzzard, pygmy owl, hawk owl, great gray owl, gray woodpecker. V2012 was observed nesting peregrine falcon. Perhaps he bred before, but was not marked.
Of reptiles and amphibians are marked 1 species: Anguis fragilis and Siberian salamander; among fish vstrechattsya 1 view - bullhead. Among invertebrates, more or less regularly meet babochkovidny caddis, ribbed beetle, butterfly - sailboats Apollo and Mnemosyne, Nigella Cyclops Satyrinae deydamiya and Jutta; bumblebees moss and sporadikus; occasional meetings antlion and Limenitis camilla.
In the collection of the reserve is kept very rare for the region view - death's head hawk moth (Acherontia atropos L.), found in s. Shura Nevyansk area that is 23 km from the reserve. Earlier, in a verbal communication VN Olshvang, reliable meetings of this kind in the Sverdlovsk region was not.
Animals. vertebrate fauna typical of the Middle Urals srednetaezhnoj zone. Among the mammals background species are moose, wolf, bear, fox and hare, lynx less common among mustelids - marten, ermine, columns and affection.
In the summer, there are traces of life roe deer and wild boar. Kaban says sometimes in winter, it is clearly adapted to local conditions, in the last 10-15 years, starting s1980 city, began to meet regularly.
In recent years, the traces of life and roe deer are more common in the reserve. Maybe they breed here, cause these assumptions was the discovery of the reserve officers discharged horn (3 cm), a young roe deer (fingerlings).
The group is represented by 12 animals of prey species distribution and abundance is directly related to the food supply. Thus, the number of wolves is closely related to livestock elk, and if not for a major effort to destroy the predator in the surrounding areas, it is, perhaps, could be a factor that reduces the number of elk in the protected area.
The Fox - a rare appearance in the reserve, meets on glades and Bereznyak, mainly in northern and western parts of the reserve and around the village. Large Ghalashki. Its population is primarily dependent on the abundance of rodents.
Badger rare, lives in bleached birch and aspen forests and on dry mountain slopes.
Otter as American mink, is characteristic p. Sulem and its tributaries, but numerous.
The lynx is found more often in the mountain area. According to the observations showed that in places where the wolf is common, almost trot is not marked.
In the summer of the entire protected area on the trails, glades and roads annually recorded tracks 6-8 bears. Exiting dens confined to the first half of April, Hong - at the end of May and throughout June, hibernation - by mid-October. Summer in the wake of a bear found ravaged nests, nests of wasps and bumblebees regularly celebrated by eating dead animals.
According to the abundance of birds in the population is dominated by complex natural reserve 3 types: finch, warblers - Chiffchaff and green, as well as ordinary lentils, which refers to the subdominant. In addition to the many types of them are still 10: robin, tree pipit, garden warbler, Mavis, Willow warbler, gray warbler, Redwing, common redstart, reel, Willow tit.
Usually on 41 species of nesting: Garden Warbler, White Wagtail, Dubrovnik, Spotted Flycatcher, goldcrest, tit, Green Tree warbler, whinchat speckled thrush, siskin, common crossbill, Dunnock, ordinary cricket, grouse, northern chat, spotted horse, Rustic bunting, Yellowhammer, Long-tailed Tit, Lesser whitethroat, skylark, spotted woodpecker, Himalayan cuckoo, corncrake, Eurasian nuthatch, common bullfinch, Barn Swallow, Carrier, lapwing, Fieldfare, gray wagtail, Chernyshev, snipe, great tit, three-toed woodpecker, river cricket, hoodie, woodcock, Sedge warbler, common cuckoo, stonechat.
rare in natural complex reserve are 37 species: Teal, blackcap, common starling, magpie, a small plover, European goldfinch, wood pigeon, capercaillie, European turtle dove, black swift, mallard, pied flycatcher, raven, European greenfinch , thrush, common buzzard, wryneck, gray shrike, Greenshank, Citrine wagtail, Red-backed Shrike, Crake, black woodpecker, quail, house sparrow, the hen harrier, reed bunting, marsh warbler, garganey, nutcracker, hobby, pygmy owl, common pika, wren, common kestrel, Wheatear, great gray owl.
The category of very rare are 14 species and 13 species of - to extremely rare: coastal swallow, common tern, yellow wagtail, tree sparrow, small flycatcher, tufted duck, short-eared owl, jay, goshawk, funnels, jackdaw, wigeon, hawk, golden eagle, Plover, Ural owl, gray crane, pintail, common goldeneye, gray duck, white-backed woodpecker, black kite, common merganser, gray heron, white-winged Tern, redshank, marsh harrier.
Here are the another group of nesting birds (31), which is marked by us only in the buffer zone of the reserve. One reason for this differentiation - is the lack of a sufficient reserve space for the typical nesting habitats or certain conditions for nesting. Among these species are representatives of 11 wetland and water and coastal environmental group: peregrine falcon, common goldeneye, small Plover, Greenshank, herbalist, terns - Dall and river, coastal swallow Wagtail - Yellow-yellow and, Sedge warbler, reed bunting .
Another group of species (10) - are representatives of open and semi-open spaces: the black kite, hen harrier, quail, crake, lapwing, short-eared owl, skylark, gray shrike, European goldfinch, Dubrovnik.
A number of (6) have been observed nesting only within the village. Large Ghalashki: funnels, common starling, magpie, Wheatear, sparrows - houses and field. Species such as common blackbird and oriole, were marked nesting on the eastern slope of the macro-Dividing Range. Eagle nest was found on a hillside close to the vast expanses of cuttings.
The probability of nesting is expected for 9 species: Grey Heron, Gadwall, Goosander, ordinary osoeda, Wood Sandpiper, owl, waxwings, Wood warbler and Tarsiger. A significant number of species (29) more or less regularly recorded on migration: Black-necked Grebe, bittern, gray goose, whooper swan, wigeon, pintail, shoveler, tufted duck, osprey, rough-legged buzzard, spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, saker falcon, Ruff , curlew, snowy owl, horned lark, Red-throated Pipit, crow, rook, dipper, common nightingale, linnet, long-tailed Rosefinch, Hawfinch, Pine bunting, Little bunting, plantain and snow bunting.
It is necessary to show the composition of another group of birds, consisting of 12 species, the nature of the host is not defined by us: Marsh Harrier, ringed plover, snipe Asian, black-headed gull, black tern, willow Talovka, Siberian rubythroat, Bluethroat, Black-thrush,