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Tuesday, 05 May 2015 00:39

Vitimsky Reserve

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Chechetkina Larisa - Director - tel. 8-914-923-5029, 8-950-104-4038

Ponomarev Natalia - Ch. Accountant - Tel. 8-904-147-7031

Shelmakova Victoria V. - Deputy. director of environmental safety - tel. 8-950-091-2201

Kirill Ponomarev - Deputy. Director of Environmental Education - Tel. 8-914-934-0962

Oil Mikhail Petrovich - Deputy. Director of Conservation conservation area - tel. 8-950-121-9348


Terrain Reserve form two mountain ranges in the north it -narrow strip Patom highlands in the south - Stanovoye Highlands, is about 90% of the reserve. The boundary between the highlands along the river Amalyk.

The relief of the reserve is composed by two mountain ranges. In the southern part of the reserve placed ridges Severomuisk and Kodar, in the central part of - Delyun-Uransky ridge height not exceeding 2400 m. Kodar has a maximum height for becoming Highlands. The highest point is the peak of the ridge Kodar BAM (3072 m above sea level).

In the central part of the range are located only in the North Baikal active glaciers.

Water

Vitim - Reserve the largest river flowing through its western border for 68 km. Within the reserve Vitim no longer navigable, a waterway along the river ends at 20 km above the reserve.

Two threshold for Vitim, and one of them is in the reserve. Delyun-Uransky threshold established granite slab, septum Vitim track at an angle of 45 degrees and creating a drop height of 1.5 m. According to the reserve flow three major rivers: Sygykta, Kultushnaya and Amalyk.

The River Sygykta formed through the merger of the right and left Sygykt originating in the highlands Kodar, and empties into Lake Oron. Kultushnaya River originates in the mountains of North - Muya ridge and almost all along retains the character of the rapid mountain river, which also flows into Lake Oron.

The River Amalyk, length of more than 60 km, originates in the spurs Delyun-Uranskogo ridge crosses the reserve from east to west in the northern part flows into the river Vitim. Her broad valley, trough shaped for a uniform fall, bottom and shore entirely covered with polished boulders of various sizes.

The swamps and Marie in the reserve large areas do not form due to the rugged mountainous terrain. They are confined mainly to the lower part of the northern areas. Here, between the rivers and Vitim Amalyk located the largest warren swamp called the Crane. It has an area of ??about 5 square kilometers.


Borders

Area - 585,838 hectares.

Reserve " Vitim " Located in the southeastern part of Bodaibo district of the Irkutsk region, all of its territory compactly located on the right bank district. Vitim about 1200 km from the source Vitim. The territory of the reserve define the boundaries: North - passes from the left bank of the river Vitim 2 km south of the mouth of the river Kipyatnoy Dividing Range on tributaries of rivers and Amalyk Kipyatnoy to the administrative border with Chita Region (Transbaikalia edge); East and South - continues along the administrative border with Chita Region to the confluence of the rivers in the Lower Uryah Vitim River; West - runs along the left bank of the river from the mouth of the river Vitim Lower Uryah to the starting point. Distance from city Bodaibo to the reserve - 240 km upstream of the river Vitim.


Protected Objects

Kodar ice area

On the ridge Kodar, is part of the systems is becoming Highlands, located Kodar ice area. It was opened back in 1883 by the French explorer Jacques Martin and investigated and described in detail in 1959 - 1961 expedition of the Institute of Geography of the USSR under the direction of VS Transfiguration. Kodar ice area includes more than 30 glaciers with a total area of ??more than 15 km. Most of them are located in the upper trough valleys and carts northern and north-eastern exposure, t. E. In the reserve. Kodar glaciers represent a unique modern glaciation in the Baikal, which is caused by the climatic situation highlands: a significant accumulation of snow, cold temperatures during the long winter. Glaciers are promising to establish the features of contemporary and past atmospheric circulation assess the dynamics of the current climate, to identify ways and rates of migration of chemical elements in the global water cycle, identification of remote sources of pollution.

Lake Oron

Lake Oron - the second largest lake in the Irkutsk region after Lake Baikal and the largest in the north of the Transbaikal, part of the hydrological network Vitim River, which connects protowhich 1 km long. As a consequence, between Orono and Vitim constantly going on water exchange, and the state Vitim inevitably has an impact on the lake. The lake is home to endemic characteristic of the lake. Baikal, which indicates the existence of past geological epochs connection between the lakes and their genetic relationship. As Baikal, Oron is the result of tectonic fractures in the Earth's crust; Bowl lake was deepened crawled out of valleys and Sygykty Kultushnaya glacier. Oron - the only one in the basin. Vitim spawning whitefish. The ichthyofauna includes 21 species, 12 of them - constantly live in the lake. On Oron noted nesting endangered species of birds - osprey, black stork, white-tailed eagle, peregrine falcon. During the spring and autumn migrations in shallow kuryah for rest and feeding stop hundreds of ducks, geese, swans, waders. Lake Oron - the main natural object, which was created to save Vitimsky Reserve.

bighorn sheep Kodar

The population of bighorn sheep Kodar, described in 1994, his researcher DG Medvedev (Irkutsk Agricultural Academy) as a separate subspecies - the smallest of the subspecies inhabiting the territory of Russia. According to the census of 2002 (Medvedev DG) its strength at Kodari does not exceed 300 individuals. Kodar bighorn sheep are not included in the Red Book of Russia (and this can be considered a mistake its compilers). But he is listed as endangered by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) as a species, depending on the measures of protection; Red Data Book of the Chita Region and the Red Book of the Irkutsk region as a species threatened with extinction. The most effective measure to save the bighorn sheep will Kodar organization of a national park on the adjacent nature reserve in southern macro-slope Kodar or expanding the boundaries of the reserve Vitim with the inclusion of Lake Nichatka.

Black-capped marmot Pribaikalskiy

In the early 20th century, he lived in the mountains around Baikal and Trans-Baikal. Construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline, the expansion of mining, increased recreational pressure on the previously inaccessible distant mountain ranges, press poaching marmots because valuable warm fur, healthy meat and fat, as well as natural limiting factors have led to a reduction in the range and number of marmots in throughout the region. Organization Vitimsky reserve, termination of exploration work on the ridges that form the topography of the reserve - Delyun-Uranskom, Severomuisk, Kodar, restriction on the free site visit helped to stabilize the number of marmots.

Barguzinsky sable

Sable - Traditional valuable object of fur trade in Russia. In history there have been periods of almost complete destruction of the species in large areas of the Urals to Kamchatka. To maintain and increase the number of fur-bearing animals were created and the first Russian reserves (Sayan, Barguzinsky in 1916), and many others - in the coming years, including Vitimsky Reserve - in 1982. The reserve is home to the most valuable subspecies of sable - Barguzinsky. This area has always stood high number of sable; hence, from the vicinity of the lake and the river valley Oron Sygykty in the forties and fifties of the last century were taken for the resettlement of animals in neighboring Yakutia.


Lake Oron

Lake Oron was the result of faulting and subsidence of the crust, followed by deepening glaciers that descend into the lake along the river valleys and Sygykta Kultushnaya.

«Oron» - Word of the Evenki origin and means «deer». In another version of the name comes from the Evenki «Horon» - «place the camp», «by the fire place».

Lake Oron called the younger brother of Lake Baikal. Combines their origin - tectonic. In lakes inhabited by some common endemic species, polychaetes polychaete manayunkiya Baikal (Manaynkia baicalensis), which was previously considered endemic to Lake Baikal.

Water Oron clean, very soft, enriched with oxygen, emerald color. Its transparency in July reached 7 to 8 meters.

Into the lake two major rivers - Sygykta, Kultushnaya and more than 10 minor keys.

The ichthyofauna of Lake Oron has 12 species: whitefish - Humpback whitefish, «oronsky» whitefish, grayling vostochnosibirsky, pike, Siberian char, common minnow, roach, dace Siberian, burbot, ruff, perch, bullhead pestronogy.

The flora of the reserve

Vegetation Reserve has cingulate character. Belt replaced as the mountains rise so: mountain-taiga (forest), subalpine (bald), alpine (bald). And at Kodari at altitudes above 2700 m there nival belt of ice, snow and rock, where it survives only plant organisms such as epilithic (crustose) lichens.

The forests are located on the bottoms of river valleys, slopes and uncool low flat watersheds. Forest boundary is at an altitude of 800 - 1200 m, but kedrovostlanikovye thickets often found below and on the stony slopes. Forests occupy no more than 12% of the reserve. Main tree species - Gmelin larch or Daurian. On sandy soils, the old burned areas and clearings grow forests of Scots pine. Less common are pure spruce, fir and pine coniferous forests. The most common in the reserve mixed forests, which along with conifers grow deciduous trees - aspen, birch ploskolistnaya, sweet poplar, aspen, chosenia toloknyankolistnaya - a relic of the Tertiary period, extant since the days when it was humid and warm climate. Above all the trees in the mountains rise woolly birch and spruce.

Above the timberline is the subalpine belt - it's rugged northern jungles of shrubs, mainly dwarf Siberian pine and birch divaricata. Kedrovostlanikovymi thickets occupied 33% of the reserve. Grow in their golden rhododendron (Kashkarov), currant fragrant and numerous species of willow.

Still higher, on average, from a height of 1500 m above sea level, extends a zone of mountain tundra and alpine meadows. Vitim highlands reserve differ so-called «snowfalls» in the winter months, strong soil freezing, so most developed moss and shrub tundra. The vegetation cover is composed of many species of mosses and lichens. Shrubs presented dwarf willow, birch,, Kashkarov - Golden Rhododendron, rhododendron Redovskogo, Cassiopeia, Dryad (kuropatochey grass). In the highlands ridge Kodar grow endemics - Oxytropis Kodar, dandelions and lozhnosnezhny Muya, poppy lozhnoserovaty. And just in the reserve grows 15 endemic species Alpine meadows occupy narrow strips along streams in a good drainage, in the middle of summer turn into the lush flower gardens. Aquilegia azure, blue zmeegolovnika, white anemones, graceful saxifrage, fire Globe and buttercups and many other flowering plants coexist with letuyuschimi snowfields, glaciers, stony talus and rocks.

Vascular plants included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation: Rhodiola rosea, Naiad flexible, calypso onion, Borodin Baikal (Borodin Teeling).

Lichens included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation: asahineya Scholander, nefromopsis Komarova, Lobar lung, Lobar mesh, meysonheylea Richardson leptogium Burnet, leptogium Gildenbranda, Piksin soredioznaya, tuknerariya Laurer.

Vascular plants included in the Red Data Book of Irkutsk region (26 species): Oxytropis Kodar, Hammarby wading, anemone bald, Borodin macrophylla, shilolistnik water, chetyrehrazdelnoy Rhodiola, Rhodiola rosea, iris smooth, rhododendron Redovskogo, Kaulin flexible cache heart-shaped, Nuphar pumila, diapensiya obovate, Adams rhododendron, lily Pennsylvania, knyazhik Okhotsk akomastilis icy, moss juniper, spruce grouse currants, calypso onion, lily quadrangular, mnogoryadnik spear-shaped, Corydalis pionolistnaya Pinguicula spatulate, Pinguicula vulgaris, Crepis Tunguska.

Bryophytes included in the Red Data Book of Irkutsk region (6 types): Shistidium gentle, trematodon dubious anektangium Thomson mielihgoferiya elongated, Necker north, mirin cushion.

Lichens included in the Red Data Book of the Irkutsk region (17 species): Cladonia Kanev, leptigium Asian, l.Burnet, l.Gildenbranda, Lobar mesh, l.pitted, l.pulmonary, stikta Wright pannariya woolly, asahineya Scholander, meysonheyleya Richardson nefropopsis Komarova, n.Laurer, Parmelee shinanskaya, Usnea cracked, usnotsetrariya Oakeza, Piksin soredialnaya.

Mushrooms , included in the Red Data Book of the Irkutsk region (7 species): ezhovik Alpine, cordyceps military, drozhzhalka gribolyubivaya, tinder Chosenia, osinovik white tektella saucer-shaped, wood Lepiota.

Animal World

They live all the typical taiga species of mammals: bear, wolverine, wolf, otter, mink, squirrel, rabbit, sable, Siberian weasel, weasel; artiodactyls - caribou, elk, moose, musk deer, roe deer.

On the ridge Kodar found bighorn sheep. Almost the entire territory in the highlands in circuses and carts, with enough grass vegetation, inhabited by black-capped marmot, included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation.

The birds nature reserve in the Red Book of Russia includes: black stork, golden eagle, white - eagle, falcon -

peregrine falcon, osprey, owls, Demoiselle Crane.

It is rare for the reserve are gray crane, whooper swan, pygmy owl.

The most common warbler - caddis fly, lentils, hawk owl. On the banks of ponds nest more than 10 species of ducks, White Wagtail, Common Tern, sandpipers.

In the mountain forests typical taiga species: nutcracker, Siberian jay, white-winged crossbill and crossbill - Elovikov, ordinary tap dance, grouse.

From fish reserve 1 views - char - davatchan listed in the Red Book of Russia.

The Red Book of the Irkutsk region is listed a number of animals found in the reserve.

Fish included in the Red Data Book of the Irkutsk region (7 species): Far Eastern brook lamprey, Siberian sturgeon, flax, trout, Arctic charr, Tugun, outrigger.

Birds , included in the Red Data Book of Irkutsk region (13 species): black stork, whooper swan, kloktun, harlequin duck, osprey, bergut, white-tailed eagle, peregrine falcon, merlin, gray crane, belladonna, owl, kingfisher.

Mammals included in the Red Data Book of Irkutsk Oblast (3 types): black-capped marmot, otter, bighorn sheep.


Ecotourism

Passing on environmental routes Vitimsky reserve is only possible when receiving passes in the administration of the reserve. The reserve "Vitim" There are 3 ecological route Vitim River and Lake Oron, passing that you can get acquainted with the nature Privitimya.

1. Cordon Amalyk - Okuneva Lake (15 km)

The trail runs in the valley. Amalyk in the forest belt, the distance is overcome in 3 hours normal course. The route passes in light coniferous taiga, where grow larch, Scots pine and Siberian spruce, fir, birch, aspen, poplar. In grasses and mosses are common marsh rosemary, cranberries, more humid areas - blueberries. Taiga herbs presented moss, horsetail, wintergreen, Maianthemum, ortiliya sided. Timeless cordon located on the former site of the village Amalyk that existed in the 30's - 50 years of the last century. Exiles lived here, engaged in logging in the valley. Vitim and downstream Amalyka, mainly for the needs of the gold mining industry Bodaibo district. The number of residents reached 1,000. In addition, in the village permanently in the navigation period were crews of boats, rafts conducted harvested timber from the upper Vitim Bodaibo and raising barges with loads up - in Karalon, directly, Nelyaty. Six kilometers from the cordon Amalyk trail crosses key Obscure - one of the many mountain streams Reserve with rapid swift currents and waterfalls.

Contacts

Additional Info

  • Country: Russia
  • State: Irkutsk Region
  • City: g Bodajbo
  • Street, House: ul Irkutskaya, dom 4A
  • Postcode: 666910
  • E-mail:
  • Site: http://vitimskiy.ru/
  • Phone: (39561) 74-696, 76-995, 5-40-15

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