The reserve is located on the Taimyr Peninsula and has a total area of ??4 millions 200 thousands Ha. Due to its structure, it covers a space of a length of 1000 km from east to west and 500 miles - from north to south. Its shores are washed by two seas of the Arctic Ocean: the Kara Sea and the Laptev Sea.
The reserve consists of seven sections:
- Dickson-Sibiryakov site
- Land " Islands of the Kara Sea "
- Pyasinskaya site
- Land " Middendorff Bay "
- Land " Nordenski?ld Archipelago "
- Land " Lower Taimyr "
- Land " Peninsula Cheliuskin "
- The reserve " Severnaya "
- The reserve " Brekhovskie island "
Dickson-Sibiryakov site (area of ??183 thousands Ha)
Includes Sibiryakova Island (85 th. Ha) with adjacent small islands and small areas of " Medusa Bay " and " Ephraim Bay ".
Island Sibiryakova - large sandy and hilly island in the Kara Sea at the exit of the Yenisei Gulf. It is a closed island ecosystem, including arctic tundra.
Lots "Medusa Bay" and "Ephraim Bay" located near the village of Dixon. Here is dominated by Arctic tundra, rocky coastline, small rocky offshore islands.
Plot " Islands of the Kara Sea " (area 371.8 th. Ha)
The structure of this complex includes about a dozen islands are medium in size and quite a few smaller islands, shoals and spit.
The composition of the area: Sergei Kirov Archipelago, the island Voronin, Izvestia CEC Islands (archipelago), the islands of the Arctic Institute (archipelago), Sverdrup Island, Isle of Solitude, a number of other islands.
These islands are adequately represent the diversity of Arctic sea islands of the eastern part of the Kara Sea. Most of the islands has a mild form of relief, the height does not exceed 60 m, there are rocks and cliffs. The shores of many islands rugged coves, bays, lagoons. Many sandy and pebble braid shoals. Vegetation - arctic tundra with depleted flora. All the islands are interested in specific closed ecosystem.
Pyasinskaya site (area 1067.2 thousand. Ha)
Covers delta Pyasina east coast Pyasinsky Bay, Taimyr areas east of the river in the basins Pyasina Khutudabiga, quiet, lazy western coast Chariton Laptev, Skerries Minin, as well as the island's fin, bird, island St. John's wort, many other islands.
The territory of the region is very diverse, represented by arctic tundra of all types.
In the upper basin Pyasina is a major industrial center - the city of Norilsk, the negative impact on the ecosystem of the reserve which is now being studied in detail by experts.
Plot " Middendorff Bay " (area 68.5 th. Ha)
Covers Gulf Coast Middendorf (Bay fjord type in the eastern coast of Chariton Laptev). Also includes the adjacent island and about half of the basin Tolevaya.
The plot is almost not studied.
Plot " Nordenski?ld Archipelago " (area 507.7 th. Ha)
The biggest (not counting the Severnaya Zemlya) archipelago of islands in the Kara Sea, consisting of many small, medium and several large offshore islands, including the adjacent shallow marine waters. Shore islands are mainly rocky, rugged coves, bays.
The archipelago is poorly studied.
Plot " Lower Taimyr " (area 1874.1 thousand. Ha)
The largest cluster Reserve - covers the lower reaches of the Lower Taimyr and pool its tributary - the river Schrenk, and the coast of the Taimyr Gulf and the Gulf of Toll.
The plot features a large landscape diversity. Lower Taimyr River has deeply cut into the mainland, very shallow eustary (Taimyr lip). Lower Taimyr estuary located in the plains of the sea and glacial origin. To the south, speaking at the foothills of the mountains Byrranga, valleys interspersed with hills, reaches a height of 250-350 m in the upper reaches of the river Schrenk - nearly 500 m.
Plot " Peninsula Cheliuskin " (area 84.6 th. Ha)
The structure of the site is included on the coast of north-west of the peninsula Cheliuskin, Delta Tessema, the west coast of the Gulf of Thaddeus island Excess and Helland - Hansen.
The area of ??the peninsula Cheliuskin - the world's only mainland Arctic desert. Only here represented a change of two natural zones - tundra and polar deserts. There can be studied forms and manifestations of life processes in particularly harsh, extreme conditions.
In addition to these seven clusters reserve "Great Arctic" administratively subordinated to the two state nature reserves - "Severnaya" and "Brekhovskie island".
National Wildlife Refuge federal " Severnaya " (area 421.7 th. Ha)
Established in 1996, it is located on the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. It consists of four sections - "The Island Home", "Peninsula Paris Commune", "Fjord Matusevicha", "Akhmatova Bay". The relief is represented by marine low-lying plains, plateau areas, separate heights (up to 594 m). There are glaciers, small rivers and lakes. Dominated by arctic desert fauna is poor.
The reserve " Brekhovskie island " (ploschad 288,5 thousand. Ha)
Create in 1999, given the importance of the lower reaches of the Yenisei River.
The structure includes the islands of the inner delta of the Yenisei River and tributaries, wetlands and lakes.
The geographical position of the Taimyr Peninsula is unique, t. To. He is the most northerly major mainland projection not only in Eurasia, but also in the world, so that there is a wide variety of landscapes.
In areas of the reserve "Great Arctic" comprehensively presents the flora and fauna characteristic of the high latitudes.
The main vegetation type Tundra - a lichen, bravely carrying the harsh conditions of the Arctic. They paint the tundra in different colors from bright yellow to black. North lichens increasingly dominate the higher plants, which in a short polar summer are not able to go through all the stages of development from germination to fruiting. For a number of higher plants is impossible annual flowering.
In this connection, there is no bulbous plants, annuals and virtually absent. Arctic plants are stunted, their branches flattened on the ground, and root systems grow, mainly in the horizontal direction. Shrubs most brilliant representative of a polar willow. Herbaceous plants are represented by sedges, cotton grass, cereals. A major role in vegetation plays a dryad or kuropatochya grass, different kinds of saxifrage, a variety of polar poppies, Eritrichium. One of the first blooms novosiversiya ice, which is called the Arctic rose.
In the area of ??the polar desert soils formed not occur, but developed a very distinct structural formations on rocky ground - rings, lockets, polygons. Arctic desert almost devoid of vegetation: no shrubs, lichens and mosses do not form a continuous cover. Total coverage of the plants ischeslyaetsya here a few percent.
Higher tundra communities monotone monotonous, especially in bad weather. But on clear days under high light blue sky, the dim arctic tundra sun transformed beyond recognition. Velvety green cover, entirely clothing hills and plains filled with warmth, and the entire northern landscape opens up tremendous space and freedom. These sunny days are very rare, but they leave a lasting impression - for life.
The severity of the climate of the Arctic north affects the fauna of the region, so it is not surprising that the fauna of the reserve is not rich in species.
Within the Great Arctic Reserve has information on invertebrates of the southernmost portion thereof (near Medusa Bay), located on the southern border of the arctic tundra, and the northernmost (Cape Chelyuskin), located in the zone of polar deserts.
One of the typical features of the Arctic fauna of insects and spiders - "miniaturization" life, typical for almost all groups of invertebrates. In the Arctic, from the ground completely drop the insect fauna insects with incomplete metamorphosis.
Linyphiidae here are one of the most popular groups of terrestrial arthropods. Particularly high number of species Erigone psychrophila Thor. , Which accounts for over three-quarters of all collected spiders. This species is typical representatives in all regions of the Arctic.
Among the insects studied in detail only the order Coleoptera, amounting to as spiders basis Mesofauna Meduza Bay. Of greatest diversity of beetles reach rove (9 species). As in other regions of the Arctic, the greatest diversity of reach Diptera. In the vicinity of the Meduza Bay are represented by at least 15 families (chironomids, detritnitsy, these mosquitoes, fungus gnats, mosquitoes winter, limoniidy, Crane fly, Empididae, blowfly, sferotseridy, piofilidy, zheltushki, flower flies, these flies, hoverflies).
The other most richly represented in the Arctic Hymenoptera order of insects - is represented by several families of parasitic Hymenoptera, bumblebees and sawflies. Another major group of herbivorous insects - Lepidoptera. The most numerous family are shovels. All herbivorous insects, reaching a large number of Medusa bay, feed on willows. The situation in the Bay of Medusa is mainly characterized by relatively high species richness of invertebrate fauna, but about two-thirds of its constituent species have low activity. The main part of the species is mainly concentrated in the raw (but not the wettest) habitats, determining their highest species richness. However, a variety of groups (most aligned by the abundance) are formed on the heat supply stations with sufficient average moisture - the gentle slopes of ridges southern exposure. Species diversity of the most contrasting groups is low, they are characterized by the presence of species-superdominanta with a very high number. The fauna of the polar desert on Cape Chelyuskin missing many major groups of invertebrates that make up an important part of tundra communities, including arctic tundra (Crane fly, spiders, beetles, earthworms, butterflies, sawflies, bees and others.), It is little oribatid mite.
The basis of the population of soil and moss-lichen turf here are 4 groups of invertebrates: nematodes (53 species), enchytraeids, springtails (10 species) and chironomid larvae; number of larvae last very high (50-1500 ind./sq. m). Equally important are gamasid ticks, mosquitoes and larvae of winter fungus gnats.
The main dominant among invertebrates - a group of relatively low phylogenetic levels: nematodes, enchytraeids, tardigrades, springtails, midges, mosquitoes mushroom.
The bird fauna of the Great Arctic Reserve includes 124 species, of which 55 species nest significantly in its territory;
ostalnyevstrecheny on migration and migrations, for 41 species are known Vagrants.
Zootypic tundra is the snowy owl and Rock Ptarmigan, which do not leave the harsh winter Taimyr. These birds like Eider, white and pink seagulls all year round do not go beyond the Polar Basin. With the onset of spring in the Arctic fly thousands of flocks of birds: white-fronted geese, black brant, diverse northern waders - Plover, Pacific Golden Plover, Grey Plover, Little Stint, Temminck's Stint, Curlew, Dunlin. Poberzhe and colonize the island, forming colonies, herring gulls, glaucous gulls, kittiwakes, ivory gulls, Arctic terns, guillemots, dovekies. tundra nesting skuas - medium, short-tailed and long-tailed, common Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), numerous passerines - Horned Lark, Snow Bunting, Lapland Bunting, Red-throated Pipit, White Wagtail, Wheatear.
Cluster system conservation area is designed so that there is a whole range of biological diversity and ekologicheskgogo Arctic in need of protection. Among the many types of biological objects are listed in the Red Book, Red Book of the Russian Federation, and the Red Book of Krasnoyarsk Krai.
At the reserve inhabited by 16 species of red-birds. Waterfowl are one of the main objects of protection in the reserve. There are four types of nesting geese, Bewick's swan and four species of ducks. Great Arctic Reserve has taken under the protection of nesting and molting 80% of the Brent Goose nominate subspecies wintering in Western Europe. The main concentration of nesting black brant are located on the islands of the Kara Sea, where they nest in colonies scattered and single pairs. Bewick's swan - a rare species included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. Nesting habitat on the Taimyr Peninsula and includes typical shrub tundra. Sporadically found in the arctic tundra subzone.
Red-breasted Goose - a rare species endemic to Russia. Included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. In the last decade with the growth of the birds, and began to expand its range to the north. Within the area of ??red-breasted goose unevenly distributed. This species is known remarkable "cohabitation" with birds of prey, patrons, as are most likely to act peregrines.
The fauna of birds of prey reserve uneventful. The main nesting birds - peregrine falcon. Peregrine falcon breeding range covers almost all the tundra zone, arctic deserts if ignezditsya, it is very rare. White-tailed eagle nests are not, but occasionally found in the south of the reserve. It is listed in the IUCN Red List and the Russian Federation. Single birds fly away in the year up to the tundra of the Arctic coast of Taimyr.
The reserve rare species of gulls: pink, Sabine, white. Gulls - a rare, poorly known species endemic to Russia, the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. In Taimyr only one known breeding colony of these birds from 45-50 pairs on eastern Taimyr (Big River Balakhnev). Annually on migration and migrations kind observed at Cape Chelyuskin, Severnaya Zemlya, in particular, on the island of Komsomolets, in the lower reaches of the Lower Taimyr. Sabine's gull nests in several colonies on the coasts of Taimyr lips. Here is the largest known colony in the world - about 40 pairs. This is the most northern center Sabine's gull nesting in the Old World. Autumn and spring meetings of this type are known for the island Sibiryakova, downstream lazy and Pyasina. White Gull - a rare arctic species listed in the Red Book of Russia. It nests on the islands of the Kara Sea: Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, the islands diabase, Sedov, Paris Commune privacy. On the mainland, not nest, but regularly flies on the Arctic coast of Taimyr (Delta Pyasina, Skerries Minin, Cape Chelyuskin).
The mammalian fauna of the reserve has 16 species, 4 of them - marine animals.
The most numerous are the smallest northern animals - lemmings (Siberian and prey). For these animals is characterized by sharp fluctuations in the number associated with the lack of feed, disease outbreaks and adverse weather conditions. Depends on the number of lemmings number of predators - fox, furry Buzzard, skuas. Dipressiya lemming indirectly affect the breeding success of birds Reserve, which ravage nests lost their usual prey, the predator. Slightly penetrating the arctic tundra Siberian lemming extended north to the river of Leningrad. Arctic lemming inhabits almost the entire sub-Arctic tundra to the northern part of the peninsula Cheliuskin and found even on Severnaya Zemlya.
There are regular meetings of the house mouse and the gray rats at polar stations, where they fall in consignments imported from the " ". mainland In Dixon for many years, there are populations of these species living there permanently (including landfills).
Most of the reserve is found wild reindeer. A small number found in the reserve permanently, and in the period of the hotel on its southern areas (near Dixon and Delta Pyasina) visit the numerous groups of the main Taimyr population of deer. Number and distribution of deer are changing rapidly. Currently on the reserve in the summer lasts a maximum of 50,000 - 150,000 animals.
The sedentary group of deer make migrations within Byrranga Mountains. Unique island population of wild reindeer lives on the island Sibiryakova.
The spread of wolves in the northern Taimyr is focal. Over a large area, they are rare and only a few places there permanently. This is usually the place of regular reindeer habitat. Information about breeding wolves in the reserve is not, but this possibility can not be excluded.