With bird's-eye area of ??the reserve «Big Kokshaga» seems endless green carpet, bluish-stitched thread winding rivers and rivulets with sparkling stained lakes. Dense forests alternate with swamps and meadows. Curly crown of pine trees give way to some dark green firs pyramids, the light birch islands.
These edges and are called - Forestry Zavolzhe. Here, in the Mari taiga, on the left tributary of river. Volga, according to the Decision of the Council of Ministers of the 14 March 1993, «in to preserve and the study of the unique natural complexes Basin Big Kokshaga», was formed State Nature Reserve, an area of ??21428 hectares. He located on the Kilemarsky territories and Medvedevsky administrative regions of the Republic of Mari El in 40 km west of the its capital - Yoshkar-Ola.
Big River Kokshaga, gave the name of the reserve, - its main water artery. On the reserve has three lakes - Shusher (floodplain karst) Kosheer (karst), and Kapsino (floodplain).
In an emerald background of the river rise mighty oaks - pride of the reserve. Flood plain oak forests are unique, representing a sustainable community. Here you can meet young dubochki and the trees of medium and older.
Forests cover 95% of the territory. Predominant place belongs to the pine forests growing in different ecological conditions from dry up damp habitats, from the poor to the rich soil. Birch, the second footprint, have emerged on the ground burnt or felled pine, t. E. Are secondary.
Indeed taiga appearance give the reserved forests of spruce. Spruce forests are shown in 7,5% territory and contain a significant admixture of hardwood (aspen, basswood, birch).
The Reserve «Big Kokshaga» is on the junction of two forest vegetation subzones: the southern taiga and mixed forests.
In forests, meadows and the marshes are more than 700 species of vascular plants, and about half of all known in the Republic of Mari El.
A significant impact on the life of the forest has a wide range of activities occupying his living creatures. Representatives of the protected fauna can be found everywhere - from the tops of tree crowns to the deep soil horizons, where the roots end. In naturally, not disturbed by human activities, there are 50 species of mammals.
Among them are predators and the victim types, all those satisfied with life small territory, and the eternal tramp remaining on the only one place in the during rearing.
Do not chance at logo Reserve shows brown bear - its density is higher than in the surrounding areas.
The mixed species composition of the tree layer, well developed thick undergrowth create ideal conditions for nesting, shelter and the power of birds. In reserve occurs more than 180 species of birds - from large predators to small songbirds. One of the they settled and found in the throughout the year, others arrive on during the breeding season, others are found only in the the spring and flights.
From amphibians reserve is home to four species of frogs and 2 species of toads. Known case of a rare meeting in the Republic of Triton - Siberian salamander.
Big River Kokshaga with its tributaries is home to 29 species of fish. The world of invertebrates represented about 1,500 species, including swallowtail, Apollo, Podalirius, beauty girl, Emperor - subject to special protection.
Protected landscapes with unique world of animals and the plants are retained in the human his original form. Today Reserve «Big Kokshaga» with can be rightfully called the pearl of the Mari region.
After the abolition of the burned in a fire in 1972 Mari Mari El scientists Reserve repeatedly expressed wishes of the creation in the republic reserved protected area. In 1985 36,6 thousand hectares has been created State Natural National Park & ??laquo; Mari Chodra». From the emergence of environmental agencies have attempted to scientific rationale for the further development of the republican network of natural protected areas.
In the initiative of the State Committee of the Republic organization nature reserve was included in the The main directions of development of specially protected natural territories of the Mari ASSR on the period up to 2005, approved by decree of the Council of Ministers of the Mari ASSR from the October 8, 1991, N 381 p. This also order a commission was established by justifying the choice of the reserve, in the consisting of experts of the State Committee and LHTPO «Mariles», scientists Marpa and Margot, chairmen Zvenigovsky, Kilemarsky and Medvedevsky District Executive Committee of People's Deputies. After a comprehensive study of opportunities were chosen two options for the reserve: a basin Rutka and Most Kokshaga river.
The Commission in its decision of December 11, 1990 asked the organizations concerned and to prepare the ground materials scientist at these two options to February 15, 1991. The Expert Group held inspection of both territories with the helicopter. On the basis of conclusions and the proposals of the expert group, a group of scientists Margot working group of the Council of Ministers of Mari SSR 11 June 1991 decided on the organization of the reserve in the Basin Big Kokshaga as the most viable option, and the appropriate presentation of the claim with the giving future Reserve the same name.
The Chairmen Kilemarsky and Medvedevsky executive committees of People's Deputies were sent a letter of the suspension of lands allocation to the Government's decision on the organization of the reserve, and the directors suburban and Kilemarsky leskhozes - about the obligatory coordination Harvesting by felling in the future of the reserve area.
In April 1992, the heads of administrations and Kilemarsky Medvedevsky District sent to the the Ministry of Environment Mari SSR letters of the agreement on the establishment of the reserve provided that local residents the possibility of forest exploitation.
The Government of the Republic of Mari El (ITR) January 18, 1993 adopted Resolution № 16 «on the organization of the biosphere reserve «Big Kokshaga».
14 March 1993 the Council of Ministers Postavnovlenie - Government of the Russian Federation № 220 was created in our republic State Nature Reserve area 21,500 hectares. The reserve is located on the territory of two administrative districts - Kilemarsky and Medvedevsky in 40 km west of the Yoshkar-Ola. Name Reserve gave one of the cleanest rivers of the European part of Russia, a left tributary of the Volga - Most Kokshaga.
The main goal of environmental education is to promote the conservation reserve reserve activities, creating a positive attitude to the it with the population. We solve the problem of formation at the republic's residents a high level of environmental culture - aspirations and the ability of people to use their environmental knowledge in the practice. Jobs the reserve is carried out with people of different ages and to different directions.
The Visitor Centre «Comino» In the office of the reserve works successfully environmental education center «Comino». In translated from the Mari language «coma, Comino» - otter, forest animal, the keeper of the forest, patroness of all animals, and in nature - species are very sensitive to change a clean environment.
In the visitor center «Comino» there «Corner Wildlife» for the youngest visitors.
This is a special room-exposure, all objects which - trees, berries, animals - very similar to the true. There is also a puppet theater with the participation of growth and glove puppets.
In the office of the reserve has a library, which has about 1,200 books on the biological, environmental, and environmental topics. Numerous magazines nature may be useful to teachers and teachers to prepare for busy as supplementary material. Literature issued for your hands when you have a passport to 10 days.
The employees reserve «Big Kokshaga» assembled a large photo-store telling about the reserved nature. The most interesting pictures are shown in photo exhibitions:
- «Preserve Big Kokshaga»
- «Mushrooms Preserve»
- «Lichens Reserve»
- «Bird Reserve»
- «in the lens animals» (Animals)
- «crawl, jump, fly» (Insects)
- «Fragile luxury green kingdom» (Rare plants)
- «Conservation Service Reserve»
- «Lake Mari El»
- The Visitor Centre «Starozhilsk»
Photo exhibitions are shown in the office of the reserve and the other rooms of the Republic, may be provided in the schools and the organization for environmental actions.
Employees GPP «Big Kokshaga» pay much attention to the search for other possible areas of environmental education activities.
The Visitor Centre «Starozhilsk»
The Visitor Centre «Starozhilsk», which is located in the eponymous village in 40 km from the Yoshkar-Ola, plays an important role in the work environmental education. The guests of the visitor center are scientists and students, pupils and the volunteers. This is the area «green» tourism, here originate informative sightseeing tours.
Museum «Peasant hut»
Creating Ethnographic Museum «Peasant hut» was to reserve one of the ways to preserve natural, cultural and the ethnographic heritage of the Republic of Mari El. In the excursion visitors get acquainted with the life and crafts peasants late 19th early 20th century.