Director of the Reserve:
Tel. slave. 7 (4212) 49-17-38 (fax)
Tel. Cell 8-924-118-07-62
Deputy Director for General Affairs
Tel. slave. 7 (4212) 49-18-72
Tel. Cell 8-962-676-41-88
Tel. slave. 7 (4212) 49-18-69
Tel. Cell 8-924-205-31-17
Senior State Inspector, pos. Nekrasovka
Tel. Cell 8-924-103-15-21
The Reserve "Bolshekhekhtsirsky" located near a large industrial center of the Far East - the Khabarovsk. It is intended to preserve the unique natural area in the Amur region under ever-increasing conversion of natural landscapes.
On the uniqueness of nature Khekhtsir noticed pervoissledovateli Ussuriland RK Maak, NM Przewalski, MI Venyukov, KI Maksimovic and others. Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski wrote: "Khekhtsirski ridge is such a wealth of forest vegetation, which is rarely found in other, even more southern parts of the Ussuri region. How strangely unfamiliar eyes to see such a mixture of forms of the north and south, are facing here in the plant and in the animal world. Particularly striking appearance ate entwined vines, or balsa wood and walnut growing near the cedar and fir. Hunting dog finds you bear or sable, but then you can find a tiger, not inferior in size and strength of the jungle dweller Bengal'.
The first Russian settlement on the present territory of the reserve dates back to the bookmarks in Khabarovsk (p. Khabarovka, 1858). It was formed at the mouth of the river Cirka arrived from Transbaikal Cossack settlers. Previously, these places are visited only the natives - Nanai (Golds), who settled on the Ussuri River in the vicinity of Called 16x target. By 1880, they had left these places or died from epidemics. Burial was found in oak burner on Nevel island in 1960. The main occupation they were gardening, hunting and fishing. Development of Human Settlements (teal Risopole, Free) refers to the 20th years of the last century and is associated with the expansion of logging on Khekhtsir, as well as with the development of agricultural land in the floodplain rivers Cirka and Ussuri.
The development of the village Chirki, located in the mouth of the river of the same name, refers to the beginning tdidtsatyh years of the 20th century. In 1934, moved here from Khabarovsk large group of working-loggers. It was built about 40 houses and organized the necessary services. Workers engaged in harvesting in the river valleys Little, Gold, Sawing, Odyr. For these rivers were built barracks for temporary housing, which are then burned by forest fires. Logging, except for residents. Teals, involved volunteers from villages and Nevelsky Kazakevichevo. The most active time of harvesting was winter. The river at its mouth Teal forest rafted in high water level, from the mouth of the river Odyr.
In connection with the relocation of the population in the city by 1960 with. Teals remained 2-3 family, and after a few years the settlement ceased to exist. We can assume that in the mouth of this river people lived at least 100 years. Here, on the river Cirka was another settlement - Risopole, which was formed in 1920 with the arrival of 20 Korean families. Settlers began plowing new land for oats, wheat, buckwheat, kept cattle, had apiary, built two mills - equestrian and water. At the same time carried out preparatory work for laying the rice fields. In 1942, 15 families settled here Nanai, but in 2-3 years they left Risopole and went down the Amur. In a subsequent revival Risopolya was not. Now we can only guess that there was once a village.
In 1916, the territory of modern Ussuri forest settled 100 families of Koreans, which gave the birth of the village Svobodnyj. The village was well organized, had 2 schools. At the same time in the area of ??the tract Kurkuniha settled 10 - 16 families of Koreans. Residents of both settlements grew broomcorn, sorghum, potatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, tomatoes; all products sold in Khabarovsk. In 1937 these villages ceased to exist.
Since the beginning of the 20th century there was intensive development of natural resources Big Khekhtsir. According to Chief of Forest Inventory Party AN Lieven "Report on the Most-Khekhtsirski cottage of 1928-1929", until 1912 were only logging along the Ussuri River Railroad and Cirka. Already in 1911-12 simultaneously with the construction of the station Korfovsky sawmill to develop new arrays deep into the taiga to 18 km was laid uzkokolleynaya railroad. Alloy harvested wood was carried out on the river and Teal. forestry accompanied by a broad band of burnt areas, located on both sides of uzkoleyki on all its length. As pointed out by AN Lieven, "burns at the same locations are repeated almost every year to the complete destruction of the forest and the soil becomes so zadernёnnoy that is a thick felt, through which can not break even these pioneers of woody vegetation, as birch and aspen". At the same time logging on the Big Khekhtsir worked limestone extraction of tar and plants; near the river and near the station inzhenerki Korfovsky was mined granite, used in particular in the construction of a bridge across the Amur.
Among the representatives of "game animals" Greater Khekhtsir AN Lieven results bear (type not specified), "driving here in large numbers", limited common wild boar and red deer, musk deer, and very rare deer. Protein and columns serve as objects of fishing, but the sable, fox, badger and lynx met sporadically. Provides information that "the last two sable with Big Khekhtsir were mined hunter from the village Kazakevichevo in 1919, and the question of staying there this animal is now the controversial", that "the otter in recent years has disappeared completely", and tiger tracks marked almost every year.
The process of large and irreversible changes in the landscape of the Amur region, resulting in ever-increasing pace of development of the Far East today, demanded measures aimed at preserving some natural systems, valuable in economic, scientific and aesthetic sense. For the first time the idea of ??organizing the reserved area on the ridge Khekhtsir was expressed botanist NA Desulavi More in 1925: "Our Khekhtsir could be a breeding ground for storage and missing, rare and endangered species. And if you want to keep the area in the vicinity of Khabarovsk Ussuri primeval nature, can not linger". However, the beginning of the commandments Khekhtsir can be considered only in 1935, when his forests have been attributed to the green zone of Khabarovsk.
In order to protect rare and endangered species in 1946 by the decision of the Khabarovsk Krai Executive Committee Khekhtsir was declared reserve of local importance. In 1952, the forest Khekhtsir were equal to the forests of I group. In 1959 the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR on the ridge Khekhtsir was established Republican state hunting reserve. Upon recommendation of the Khabarovsk Gosohotinspektsii and Local History Museum, Khabarovsk Krai Executive Committee decision dated February 1, 1963 and the order of the Council of Ministers of the October 3, 1963, on the ridge of the Grand Khekhtsir on the territory of Khabarovsk Osinovorechenskogo forestry forestry and south-western part of Khekhtsirski Far East Forestry Research Institute of Forestry, in the territory of 45,380 hectares was organized Bolshekhekhtsirsky reserve the Far Eastern Branch of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The reserve was split off from the Khekhtsirski forestry, which until 1963 were felling and lesohozyaystvennnye event.
It was originally planned that the reserve "Bolshekhekhtsirsky" will be protected suburban areas such as national park, which explains the choice of site for the misuse of the commandments in the vicinity of Khabarovsk. Soon, however, it became clear that the reserve is of great value for conservation of all the Far East region, so by his regime and the status it was equated to other reserves of the Far East of the USSR.
Big Khekhtsir Forest management was first made in 1912, when the area was part of the garden Khekhtsirski Khekhtsirski forestry Maritime region. More detailed forest inventory was 1928. Then, specify the territory, later became a conservation - forest cottage Big Khekhtsir.
The next forest inventory was performed in 1950, when the territory of the reserve has been an integral part of the Khabarovsk forestry. Follow forest inventory work took place in 1962, when the reserve was part Khekhtsirski experienced forestry DalNIIPKh. The latest forest inventory conducted in 1986. The present borders and as an independent unit in the reserve for the first time lesoustroen 1972-1973.
The main objectives are the conservation reserve historically natural systems as a reference region, as well as the study of the processes occurring in nature, do not suffer from the economic to the impact areas. Organizers and founders of the reserve "Bolshekhekhtsirsky" was a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Alexander Stepanovich Khomentovskii, Far Eastern writer and game manager Vsevolod Sysoev and renowned Far hunting expert Nikolay Mihaylov. The first director Bolshekhekhtsirsky State Natural Reserve became Nikolai Mikhailov. His love of nature manifested itself in early childhood. His parents, he was determined in a circle of young naturalists Vladivostok. On the 5th grade, he attended lectures idol travelers - Arsenyev, and it determined his fate. Under the guidance of NV Mikhailov was carried out works on the description reserve. Simultaneously with the formation Bolschehehtsirskogo zapovdenika was working on the creation of Xing'an, Zeya and Komsomolsk reserves.
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Reserve is the largest reserve of the plants. In the marshes, and water maryah grounds well kept and successfully recovering from a recent low water very rare relict plant «Brasenia Schreber»
- A contemporary of dinosaurs, as well as the orchid flower «chase»; in good preservation is «Gastrodia elata»
- Extremely valuable medicinal plant, widely used by Aboriginal peoples for the treatment and rehabilitation of illness or injury weakened body.
To date, the reserve scientists recorded about 2850 species of insects, some of them only 1,833 species of Lepidoptera. This one and a half times higher than in other well-surveyed reserves of Russia, the study is not yet complete - assumed new discoveries. Was discovered a very rare species of the insect world - «», koridal it occurs once in a century, and only once in a lifetime entomologist. Reserve revealed invasion webworm - dangerous (like locusts) pest plants and notified the population in the south of Khabarovsk Krai.
An abundance of rodents in the reserve - an important link in the food chain of nature - evidence of good ecological status of the reserve: the mouse - it's food supply snakes, owls, sable, column, other terrestrial and avian predators, and all this combined promotes biodiversity conservation - the very purpose for which the reserve was created.
The relief of the reserve due to its geographical location: Reserve is located almost in the center Sredneamurskaya lowlands, is the largest intermountain depression. It has a complex geological structure and large size. Maximum width of the line-Vyazemskij Birobidzhan is about 200 km, and the length is about 600 km. In the central part of the basin and near the edges among the flat surface of the accumulative rise low mountain ranges and massifs (Khekhtsir, 950 m, Vandana, 853 m, Big chocks, 831 m, and others), as well as solitary hill height of 20-30 m above the plain (Big Ussuri Island, Yadasen and others).
The basin is composed of lacustrine-alluvial sandy-loamy strata power of hundreds of meters. Along the central part of the proceeds is one of the largest rivers in the world - Cupid. Due to tectonic movements significant negative sign of the area of ??depression slowly sinking, which is the main cause of intense accumulation in the valley of the Amur River and the lower reaches of Ussuri. Accumulation rate is estimated to be about 1.0 mm per year.
The relief of the reserve for the most part belongs to the lowland sredneraschlenennomu erosion-denudation type, which is characterized by widespread slopes of varying steepness and deeply incised valleys sufficiently small streams flowing into the Amur and Ussuri rivers.
Most of the uneven water flow causes the removal of a significant amount of alluvial material from the mountain side to the foot of the Great Khekhtsir. Therefore, in its lower reaches, they usually form alluvial and alluvial cones proluvial well expressed relief. In the context of plunging rivers and river valleys deepen cones form a nested accumulative landforms at different hypsometric level. Only Ussuri river valleys and Cirka and adjacent areas are located on the flat area.
The highest point in the reserve (Mount Big Khekhtsir) has a height of 949.4 m above sea level. The lowest point is on the bank of the river. Ussuri River near the mouth of the river. Inzhenerki and is situated at an altitude of 34.3 m. Thus, the absolute amplitude of the fluctuations of heights greater than 900 m. Combs watersheds usually have sharp shapes with asymmetric slopes. Often on them by the steep slope to the surface outcrops of rock ledges up to 1.5 m. In the upper parts of the northern slopes of the highest peaks of the range stand out in relief in the form of extended stage across the slope gently sloping areas up to 20m wide with steep ledges above them.
They are a relic upland terraces and snezhnikovye niche formed at the maximum cold weather during the last glaciation 18-20 thousand years ago. On top of the mountain is Big Khekhtsir extensive grounds with a decrease in the center, on the surface which are randomly scattered around large blocks of strong siltstones. They also represent a relic of Education Kurume and stone rivers, typical of many mountain peaks of Sikhote-Alin. Along the edges of fields, especially in the south-eastern side of her, in relief stand out denudation outliers folded siltstone, some of which acquired a very strange shapes, resembling a person's face in profile, towers and so on. N. The most expressive and diverse forms of denudation outliers are located in the watershed of the creek and Sosninskaya p. Bykov at altitudes 500-570 m. The most significant of these are the remnant of the Sphinx and a group of rocky residual outcrops Raven stones. Despite the fact that they are surrounded on all sides by dense forest, they can be clearly seen from the Amur ducts.
Outlier Sphinx is a sheer wall width of about 10 m, extending from the slope and pick off the shoulder height of 15 m. At the foot of it, there are large clusters of randomly scattered boulders granodiorite, which is composed of a wall.
Group rocky residual outcrops Raven stones, also composed of granodiorite, extends for several hundred meters along the crest of the watershed. They are usually located in groups of several dissimilar vertical cliffs, the outlines of which is shaped like a bird's feather, turtles, seals, birds, and so on. N. The river valleys of small orders have a V-shaped cross-section and steep slopes downstream watercourses. Channel their inundated with large boulders or rock outcrops. Therefore, deep erosion is controlled by the speed of weathering, which at constant moisture is characterized by high intensity compared with the destruction of rocks on the slopes under the cover of unconsolidated sediments.
As a result of the activity of slope processes and the accumulation in the valleys of small rivers with steep longitudinal slope of increased thickness of unconsolidated sediments, the conditions for the formation of mudflows. Intense rainfall, especially during the passage of the typhoon, and a high coefficient of runoff in the upper echelons of the river network is the main reason for the formation gryazekamennyh flows. However, widespread sat not received. They are usually small and steep valleys characteristic of the first order. Small mudslide length of about 200 m was recorded in the origins of the Golden creek. Erosional incision has a width of 20 m and a depth of 5 m.