The history of the reserve «Bastak» as a specially protected natural area begins with 1981, when the local authorities in the territory of the eastern part of the district Obluchensky Jewish Autonomous Oblast (EAO), part of the Khabarovsk Territory was organized Bastaksky botanical reserve area of ??45.7 thousand. ha of forest land.
By the decision of the Khabarovsk Krai Executive Committee reserve received this status for an indefinite term.
A year later, the decision of the executive committee of the Khabarovsk regional Council of People's Deputies of 24. 09. '82 number almost 597 in the same territory in the area of ??42 thousand. Ha was established by the new complex hunting reserve of regional value «Bastak».
Title Sanctuary received from occurring on the territory of district.
The objectives of the reserve includes the protection and reproduction of valuable commercial species of animals and birds.
Work on the reserve began in 1993 at the invitation of the administration of EAO arrived Expedition State Enterprise «Russia Nature» under the direction of William H. Tankacheeva.
The aim of the expedition is to conduct bio-economic survey and preparation of the scientific rationale for the creation of specially protected areas (PAs), the highest rank in the region.
Based on the work performed «Russian Nature», in 1994 was developed and approved by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Russian Federation «project organization Nature Reserve «Bastak» in the Jewish Autonomous Region» a total area of ??42 thousands ha.
In April 1994, a governmental decree proposal on the organization of the State Nature Reserve (ILI) «Bastak» was approved, but before 1996 effective measures for the organization of the reserve has been taken.
After the RF Government Resolution dated June 8, 1996 № 633 «On state support of socio-economic development of the Jewish Autonomous Region in 1996 - 2000» the establishment of a reserve thanks to the support of the regional administration has been further developed, but later took the new agreement.
All of them, including from forest management EAO were obtained in 1996, prepared in view of the planned expansion of the territory of the reserve and are represented in the regional administration.
In fact, the question was raised about the transfer of territory Razdolnenskiy Birobidzhan forest forestry future reserve.
Head of Administration EAO NM Volkov was decided to share with interested federal executive bodies, heads of administrations and Obluchensky Birobidzhan areas to prepare for the fourth quarter 1996 proposal for the establishment in 1997 State Natural Reserve «Bastak» and send them to the Government of the Russian Federation.
January 28, 1997 the Government of the Russian Federation adopted a decree number 96 «On the establishment of a nature reserve «Bastak» on an area of ??91,038 hectares within the boundaries of the Birobidzhan Razdolnenskiy forestry forestry.
Name Reserve received from the reserve.
Russian State Committee 06. 05. 1997 approved the Provisional Regulations of the State Nature Reserve «Bastak».
Guide the newly established reserve was entrusted to the Committee on Environmental Protection and Natural Resources of the JAR together with interested federal executive authorities.
Getting the real work of the reserve, as an independent organization with a staff of 1998 refers to the Order of the State Committee on Environmental Protection to the number 25 from 06. 02. 1998 Director GPP «Bastak» appointed A. Yu Kalinin, and from April 1998 defined budget funding reserve and began to form his staff.
Reserve office was located in the regional center - Birobidzhan.
Since the establishment of the Directorate Reserve «Bastak» priority was the issue of its borders.
When transferring the reserve fund in the state forest boundaries Razdolnenskiy forestry forestry Birobidzhan its area was 91,121 hectares, compared to a certain area of ??the RF Government Decree 91 038 hectares.
The reserve was established in the territory, as modified by human activities, partially derived from ecosystems.
Directly to the reserved area has production facilities, including environmental hazards.
On the periphery of the reserve has developed severe pyrogenic atmosphere, leading to a change and depletion of vegetation.
Directorate much work was done to clarify the location of the southern borders of the reserve «Bastak».
As a result, the area of ??conservation area increased by 733 hectares, the boundaries are removed from the village.
Removed from the land reserve military shooting range, which is based federal highway Chita - Nakhodka line fiber-optic communication.
According to the results of the Directorate made proposals to the government of the Khabarovsk Territory and the Jewish Autonomous Region on the need to create a buffer zone around the perimeter of the reserve.
Suggested parameters and draft provisions on protected areas on the territories of the Russian Federation.
Suggestions and recommendations were supported and protected zone around the perimeter of the reserve established by the Resolution of the Governor of the Jewish Autonomous Region 15. 01. 2001 № 16 on an area of ??15,390 hectares, and the governor of Khabarovsk Territory from 19. 03. 2002 № 148 - 11,160 hectares.
Thus, the total area of ??the buffer zone of the reserve is 26,550 hectares.
July 28, 2006 Interagency Environmental Council supported the proposal to establish a reserve on the territory of the cluster area Smidovichski area within the boundaries of the regional state biological reserve «Zabelovsky».
The Council's decision was supported by the Vice-Governor GA Antonov, who took an active part in the speedy resolution of the issue.
The initiative was supported by the reserve in the face of NM Volkova, the then governor of the region post.
Later, the creation of the cluster area also supported the current head of the autonomy - A. Vinnikov.
With the financial support of the Amur branch of the World Wildlife Fund in 2006, work began on the creation of the cluster area on the territory of Smidovichski area.
April 21, 2011 was signed by RF Government Decree number 302 «The expansion of the territory of the State Natural Reserve «Bastak».
The territory of the reserve has increased to 127 thousand. Hectares due to its inclusion in the territory of the forest land area of ??35,323.5 hectares in the municipal area Smidovichski Jewish Autonomous Region.
The hydrographic network is branched.
All the rivers of the reserve are part of river basin.
Cupid, namely its two tributaries of the first order rivers Bira and Tunguska.
Dominated by the mountainous nature of the river, with the exception of rivers of south-eastern part of the reserve.
The main part of watercourses (rivers and streams) have a length of less than 10 km, the number of lakes with a water surface area of ??1 km2 slightly.
The river network is well developed in the mountainous region and to a lesser extent in the plains area.
In the mountainous part of the river network density is significant for every square kilometer of the surface has to 0.7-0.8 km river network.
The largest rivers are: Bastak (length in the reserve 63 km), John (64 km), Big Sorennak (43 km), Glinianka (35 km), Kirga (31 km), ikura (26 km).
The major rivers flow mainly from the north-west to south-east or north to south, crossing both mountain and plains of the reserve.
The nature of the upper reaches of most rivers typically mountainous with an irregular flow of water and a high coefficient of runoff.
The upper reaches of the rivers are narrow rocky valleys, rivers often stepwise nature, with plenty of shallow shoals.
In the middle reaches of the river changes character, speed drops, rolls disappear.
In the lower reaches of the river have a flat character, meandering channel, a weak flow.
The rivers have expressed spring floods.
The main cause of floods are the summer monsoon rains.
At this time, the water rushes on the slopes, overflowing rivers, leaving the banks and flood plains.
Flat areas for a long time are sinking, or in a state of excess moisture, which is one of the reasons for their waterlogging.
The lakes are located exclusively on the plain (exogenous).
Formation of floodplain lakes due to the erosion-accumulation activity of rivers, spring break.
On the marshy plains in river basins Bastak, Big Sorennak, Glinianka everywhere permafrost.
Within the reserve «Bastak» dominated by three zonal types of landscapes: the Far Eastern taiga (boreal), the Far East and Far East SUBTAIGA deciduous (subboreal) (Isachenko, Hatters, 1989).
Apart from them in the north (of Bydyr) fragments presented gornotundrovye landscapes.
Also common zonal landscapes in the river valleys, in the first place, along the river.
The first three are characterized by common zonal-sectoral features in the structure, functioning and dynamics, which are revealed through the ratios of heat and moisture.
The basis of the vegetation of the reserve are evergreen boreal taiga and letnehvoynye immoral and deciduous forests in conjunction with larch forests in areas riverine lowlands.
Spruce-fir forests of the reserve are typical representatives Priamurskaya-Sikhote-Alin facies fir-spruce forests.
Forest formations are characterized by the dominance of the high conifers Ajan spruce and abies forming plant communities, together with shrubs: cranberries, ortiliya bokotsvetnoy (Orthilia secunda); melkotravem: Oxalis acetosella (Oxalis acetosella), Maianthemum bifolium (Maianthemum bifolium), northern Linnaeus (Linnaea borealis), European starflower (Trientalis europaea) and green boreal mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Dicranum majus, Rhitidiadelphus triquetrus, Sphagnum girgensohnii).
Mountain larch and larch forests with On the high mountain slopes and watersheds marked depleted species composition larch and spruce, fir and larch larch and plant communities.
Often occurs in these stands ploskolistnaya birch (Betula platyphylla).
In the shrub layer are common dauricus rhododendron (Rhododendron dauricum), honeysuckle Maksimovic, oriental spirea (Spiraea media).
Forests of birch and aspen ploskolistnoy In the contact zone of fir-spruce and pine broadleaved forests, mainly in the areas of felled or burned areas, plantations monodominant generates white birch, sometimes in conjunction with aspen (Populus tremula).
In the undergrowth is dominated mainly pyrogenic species: Fieldfare ryabinolistny (Sorbaria sorbifolia), kististaya elder (Sambucus racemosa), and Rosa acicularis (Rosa acicularis), rhododendron dauricus.
The composition of the subordinate layers in these communities depends on habitat conditions and the type of the previous community, but thrive light-loving species: Langsdorf reed grass (Calamagrostos langsdorffii), ordinary raspberry (Rubus idaeus), meadowsweet berezolistnaya (Spiraea betulifolia), honeysuckle Maksimovic and others.
Typical types of mixed broadleaved-spruce-pine plantation trees are: Korean pine, birch, yellow, maple zelenokory (Acer tegmentosum), Manchurian ash, lilac Amur, elm blade (Ulmus laciniata);
shrubs and vines: Amur barberry (Berberis amurensis), svobodnoyagodnik scratchy, fine-leaved mock orange, hazel Manchu, melkotsvetkovy euonymus (Euonymus pauciflora), Chinese magnolia; Herbs: goutweed mountain (Aegopodium alpestre), sedges Krivonosov (Carex campylorhina) and Ussuri (C. ussuriensis), lily of the valley Keyzke (Convallaria keiskei), novomoliniya Manchu (Neomolinia mandshurica), staminate rue (Thalictrum filamentosum), Selkirk violet (Viola selkirkii) and Wallenstein ternate (Waldsteinia ternata).
For northern facies broad-cedar forests characterized by the presence in the stand of Korean pine, which determines the dynamics and development community as a whole.
Except as part of a cedar plantations marked Ayan spruce, fir pochkocheshuynaya, small-leaved maple (Acer mono) and yellow (A. ukurunduense), Amur linden, Amur velvet (Phellodendron amurense), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), birch ploskolistnaya and Daurian (Betula davurica), Maak Amur (Maackia amurensis), Mongolian oak, Amur lilac (Ligustrina amurensis).
The undergrowth consists of Manchu hazel (Corylus mandshurica), prickly svobodnoyagodnika (Eleutherococcus senticocus), sacred euonymus (Euonymus sacrosancta), fine-leaved chubushnika (Philadelphus tenuifolius), lianas: Actinidia kolomikta (Astinidia kolomikta), Amur grape (Vitis amurensis) and Schisandra chinensis (Schisandra chinensis).
Grass cover cedar multispecies, its composition depends on the ecological characteristics of the habitat, and the state of the tree and shrub layer in communities.
Mixed deciduous forest
On the reserve communities represented lime, yellow birch and oak, widespread on the slopes of varying steepness within broad-coniferous forest belt.
A unique feature of this type of forest in the reserve is a significant part in the composition of the Amur linden tree stands.
Sometimes it acts as a dominant communities.
Furthermore limes in mixed deciduous forests are well represented and small-leaved maples zelenokory, Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica), Mongolian oak, Amur Maak, Japanese elms (Ulmus japonica) and blade.
Rich in species composition of the undergrowth.
There have hazel Manchu, fine-leaved mock orange, euonymus few-flowered, Amur barberry, viburnum Sargent (Viburnum sargentii) and other species.
Valley broad elm-ash and poplar forests
The forests of this type in the reserve are extremely rare and are here for the northern boundary of the spread.
The upper canopy can include up to 10 species of trees, including birch ribbed, Manchurian ash, Manchurian walnut, Amur cork, Korean cedar, Mongolian oak, linden Amur, Japanese elm.
Along the mountain rivers are found fragments of considerable size Maksimovic poplar trees (Populus maximowiczii), dewy willow (Salix rorida) and Schwerin (S. schwerinii), bird cherry (Padus avium) and Maak (P. maackii).
In the forest of the conservation area, the usual species of mammals are: sable, squirrel, Siberian chipmunk, roe deer, raccoon dog, brown and black bear, badger Amur, northern pika.
Species richness is represented by forest avifauna (150 species), six species of tits (burogolovaya and Marsh tit et al.), Hazel grouse, spruce grouse, seven species of woodpeckers (white-backed, Great spotted woodpecker, etc.), Seven species of birds of prey (osprey
, Crested Honey Buzzard, Buzzard et al.), gray lichinkoed, an ordinary white-eye, 10 species of owls (Ural owl, Ussuri scoop et al.), 8 kinds of buntings (gray-haired, taiga oatmeal, etc.), blue nightingale, korotkohvostka, pale-warbler, Jungle crow, jay, 8 species of thrushes (pale, taiga blackbirds etc.).
Ecosystem of wetlands
The marshes dominated by sphagnum, lowland grass-sedge hypnum and transient.
They are confined to the lower parts of the valleys of the rivers with high water table and cold peaty soils.
The most prominent are the sphagnum mosses.
From bushes and shrubs are common Rhododendron tomentosum and poliumolistny andromeda (Andromeda polifolia), bilberry willow (Salix myrtilloides), blueberry ordinary, cranberry and others.
Herbal layer consists of bean trefoil (Menyanthes trifoliata), smilatsinoy trifoliate (Smilacina trifolia), marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre), horsetail river (Equisetum fluviatile), Mytnikov large flowering (Pedicularis grandiflora).
The rare species grow in swamps Pogonia Japanese (Pogonia japonica), Habenaria lineynolistny (Habenaria linearifolia), xiphoid iris (Iris ensata).
Mammals - raccoon dog, fox, hare Manchu, otter, deer, and elk.
Birds (100 species) - Far Eastern stork, Japanese, white-naped cranes and black, piebald lun, eastern marsh harrier, short-eared owl, the Amur top, Far Eastern Curlew, gray-headed bunting, bunting collared, Dubrovnik, singing cricket pestrogolovaya Warbler and others.
Amphibians - Far Eastern frog, Siberian salamander, Far Eastern toad
Reptiles - lizard.
Large tracts of grassland are confined mainly to the valleys of the rivers in their lower reaches.
They are presented periodically overmoistened reed and sedge-reed groups, at least on the burner -
grass-forb and forb-shrub upland groups.
Herb-reed grass meadows with Langsdorf reed grass develop on loamy, well-drained soils of alluvial river terraces.
With increasing soil moisture they are replaced with reed sedge-reed grass meadows Langsdorf.