80 years ago at a meeting Bashsovnarkom heard the report of the chief of the expedition of the Academy of Sciences of the Bashkir ASSR zapovedovanii territory, exceptional natural beauty and uniqueness of which is still in the 1870's were listed in Reports famous travelers II Lepekhina and PI Rychkova «all covered mountains were pretty red forest where larch chiefly abounded. How was hefty in the mountains forest, so graceful they grow herbs, and we are the best collection of herbs sim bound at the mountains».
The local population was engaged in hunting, fishing and apiculture by centuries of natural resources and have no damaging effect on the environment.
But the construction of mountain plants in Avzyane, Kage and Beloretsk, population growth and development of the
livestock changed everything. Thinned forests, degraded steppe under the pressure of numerous herds of cattle.
At the end of 19 - beginning of the 20th century, the rich nature of the region there is a real threat of devastation. The sad fate of this part of the mountain forest of Bashkortostan could not help but worry scientists.
It was clear that it preserve the core should be exempt from any economic activity, to organize reserve here.
Under the leadership of the famous scientist Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko Bashkir expedition USSR Academy of Sciences in the late 20s, defined boundaries and challenges of the future reserve and sent the material collected Bashsovnarkom.
Approved and registered by the Bashkir State Nature Reserve as an institution - June 11, 1930 with an area of ??more than 49609 thousands ha with a view to preserving and studying natural processes and phenomena in the typical and unique, established millions of years of mountain ecological systems of the Southern Urals, including representatives of the European and Asian flora and fauna.
The reserve is located in the north-eastern part of Burzyansky Administrative Region of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
From the northwest bordered by Beloretsk Administrative Region, in the north-east and east - with Abzelilovsky.
Today at the age of 80 Bashkir State Reserve one of the oldest in the Russian Federation and one of the first seven time education in Russia and the second in the Urals.
It has accumulated vast invaluable material on the development of the nature of the Southern Urals, the analysis of which allows you to go to the most environmentally sound sustainable environmental management in the neighboring territory of the reserve, preserve the rich nature of the Southern Urals.
Shaping the landscape of the reserve has been associated with the evolution of the climate, geological and geomorphological processes and human activities.
The reserve lies in the part of the Urals, where the main ridges Krakow and the Ural-Tau lose meridional direction and fall into the network, it is difficult constructed hills.
Some authors (Biruni, Gardizi) called Ural Mountains on their ethnonym «Bashkyrt» and «Bashhyrt».
The western part of the reserve is within the intrusive gabbro-peridotite massif South Krakow, ridges which are pronounced sculptural forms.
They are much better understood.
According to its structural nature and composition, they can be divided into two parts: a) the lower folded serpentinite melange, and b) an upper represented mainly by massive and ultrabasites fragmentarno- banded gabbro complex and Alpine.
River valleys array is divided into a number of separate hills, from which radiate numerous valleys of small rivers and streams.
Have a view of the valley of deep gorges and separated from each other comb watershed.
When sharply dissected topography there is a sharp contrast northern and southern slopes in land cover and, therefore, in appearance.
In melange known rare faunal findings, which are presented mainly Silurian graptolites.
Among them, mention may be made in addition to found GD Ozhiganova blocks of limestone with remains of Upper Silurian fauna among serpentinite at pp. Bala-Elga, Sangildy, and others. It is necessary to mention having an interesting cultural and ethnographic importance of geological monuments - Bashhardsky thrusts.
Bashhardsky thrusts arising from lying folds as a result of thrust, is characterized by a range of travel cover, its capacity, large size and complexity of the structure.
Meridional section of the river separates South Uzyan Southern Krak from the ridge Ural-Tau, constituting the eastern half of the reserve.
The eastern half of the reserve is characterized by finely undulating terrain with elongated ridges, sloping long wavy terrain, long flat valleys logs.
The tops of Ural-Tau smoothed, especially on the western slope.
Within the reserve is the backbone Olo-tau (Old Mountain), which today continues to crumble into slabs of various sizes.
The reserve has a dense network of rivers and streams.
The main streams are tributaries of White - South Uzyan and Kagy.
Spurs Yaman-gyr, which originates South Uzyan and called - Uzyan-bash (beginning Uzyana).
From the Southern Krakow and Ural-Tau river absorbs many tributaries of different sizes.
On the eastern tributaries of the rivers originate Bol.
Dogwood and Sakmara related to the basin Urals.
River Reserve swift, cold and clear water.
Due to the dense hydrological network that supplies clean water and river Agidel Urals, Bashkir State Reserve is
important hydrological unit of the republic.
Land cover depends on the topography and accessories for landscaped areas.
In the lowlands of Southern Krak dominated shirokotravno-grass pine or secondary birch forests.
Aspen occur as rare individual arrays.
In pine forests, as a memory of the past, these forests have survived the huge stumps of larch.
On the Ural-Tau pine a little, but it becomes more lush birch and aspen especially.
The forests in the South Krak coexist with the steppe woodland and mountain steppes, to varying degrees, modified the former intensive grazing.
On the Ural-Tau steppes there is little, but the livestock has left its mark in the form of large arrays of meadow, the so-called «», koshey vegetation and animal populations has become an important component of the natural complex of the reserve and therefore the existence of a special regime supported meadows mowing.
River valleys South Uzyan, HKSAR, Kagy narrow ribbon stretches Cheremuhovo-alder or willow uremia.
To Advanced floodplain and low terraces above the floodplain of these rivers are confined colorful floodplain forb and grass-different-herbal meadows.
Reserve's flora includes 317 species of lichens, 121 species of mosses, 747 species of vascular plants, of which 105 species are rare and subject to special protection, including 7 species included in the Red Data Book of the USSR, 14 - in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, 53 - in the Red Book of the Bashkir ASSR.
Lichen Bashkir Reserve has a high biological diversity, which is based multiregional and Holarctic species.
The largest eco-substrate group are epiphytic lichens, which have a high index of specificity.
Most of the lichens Reserve (85%) is characterized by a low frequency of occurrence.
Of particular interest are the rare species of orchid family, over which the reserve made careful observations.
The fauna is also striking in its richness and diversity.
The reserve is home to 259 species of vertebrates, 17 of them - fish, 3 - amphibians, 6 - reptiles, 176 - birds, 57 - mammals.
According to the results have not yet completed an inventory of invertebrates inhabiting found 1732 species of spiders and insects, of which 17 species are rare.
The primary objects of protection are valuable game animals: elk, deer, brown bear, lynx, fox, marten, otter, mink, weasel, squirrel, hare, grouse, black grouse, grouse, woodcock and others. Many forest, especially taiga species - bear, squirrel, lynx, squirrel, grouse, crossbill-Elovikov, Himalayan cuckoo, great gray owl, bullfinch - live near the southern border of their areas.
During the 75 years of its reserve animal population undergoes some changes.
Dropped out of the fauna steppe pika, gray rat, field mouse and mouse-baby, but there were tiny and Taiga shrew, wild boar, muskrat, red deer, mink.
The first batch of 40 red deer heads were brought in 1941 from the Altai.
Now they can be considered as a background for the reserve views.
Among the most numerous birds perching and grouse, in Vol. H. Capercaillie and hazel grouse, a detailed study of distribution and biology that leads in the reserve since 1930 bird fauna in the reserve is remarkable that there are many breeds of birds of prey: the buzzard, kestrel, yastreb-goshawk, sparrow hawk, owl - gray and Ural owl, Scops Owl, pygmy owl.
Among these species listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan.