FGBU & laquo; Zapovednoe Baikal & raquo;
this joint management of the Baikal-Lena Reserve and the Baikal National Park.
It consists of four specially protected areas (PAs): & laquo; Pribaikalskiy National Park & ??raquo ;, & laquo; Baikal-Lena Reserve & raquo ;, and federal wildlife sanctuaries & laquo; Krasny Yar & raquo;
and & laquo; Tofalar & raquo ;.
Since 1996 Pribaikalskiy National Park and the Baikal-Lena Reserve are part of the World Heritage Site by UNESCO & laquo; Lake Baikal & raquo;
& laquo; Baikal-Lena State Nature Reserve & raquo;
was created by the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR December 5, 1986 № 497 (area of ??659.9 thousand. ha).
This is a world of pristine nature, endless taiga, the source of the Lena River, Cape Ryty sacred and most bearish position in mainland Russia.
State Natural Reserve & quot; Baikal-Lena & quot;
organized on the territory of Kachug and Olkhon district of Irkutsk region.
On the first of them account for 93% conservation area, the second (Olkhon) - 7%.
The reserve stretches from south to north along the west coast of Lake Baikal about 120 km, with an average width of 65 km.
The perimeter of its borders is about 520 km, of which 112 falls on the lake shore.
The creation of the reserve is associated with an attempt to rehabilitate and expand the area Barguzinsky reserve after a sharp reduction in its area in 1951.
In the second half of the 1950s enthusiasts Nature Protection of Lake Baikal, in particular zoologist OK Gusev, chairman of the Baikal Commission of the Geographical Society of the USSR VV Lamakin geographer and GI Galazii offered commanded not only part of the eastern coast of Lake Baikal
and Ushkaniye Islands (which was suggested by VN Sukachev in the beginning of the century), but the area on the western shore of the lake - from the Cape to Cape Ryty Kotelnikovsky.
OK Gusev suggested naming this site & quot; brown bears Shore & quot;
(Gusev, 1977, 1990 et al.).
In May 1960, the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR issued a Decision & quot; On the protection and use of natural resources in the basin of Lake Baikal & quot;
(Of the RSFSR, № 22, Art. 92), which reflected the proposals.
However, because of the new reorganization in 1961, the reserve system, these plans were not realized.
In 1969, it was decided another government regulations, including the problem of Nature Protection of Lake Baikal.
Thereafter, Irkutsk Management hunting-trade economy Glavohoty RSFSR (M. Grigoriev, EM Leontiev) have proposed the organization of the Baikal-Lena Reserve in the origins of Lena and Kirenga, which was officially supported by the Irkutsk Oblast Executive Committee.
The interest in the creation of this reserve has increased in the mid-1970s.
with the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline, when sharply increased anthropogenic pressure on the adjacent territory, in particular, to the south of the building under Severobaykalsk.
Due to the memo on the subject, presented in Glavohotu RSFSR Professor VN Scalon and circulation of the Conference on the Conservation of Nature BAM, held in 1975 in Irkutsk, Russian Federation Glavohota in early 1976 sent to Irkutsk
area of ??design and survey expedition, which was tasked with designing the reserve in Vitim Bodaibo area.
Many experts (LI Malyshev, FR Shtilmark et al.) Then offered to switch to a more contemporary Baikal-Lena Reserve, but the executive committee was against.
And only after almost 10 years, in 1984, when biocenosis Verholenya already suffered great damage from fires and poaching in these areas began designing targeted reserve.
The work carried out on the design of the reserve of the West Siberian Design Glavohoty RSFSR expedition led by A. Aleksandrov, together with the Biological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
Scientific director of this work was an employee of the Institute, a zoologist G. Sweden.
In addition, they took part in a number of scientific institutions staff Irkutsk Limnological Institute, Irkutsk University, East-Siberian Branch VNIIOZ, Baikal Reserve, as well as employee of the Office of hunting and forestry, cartography, and other specialists.
In the design process and in the early years of the Baikal-Lena Reserve raised a set of conflicts related to the diversion of forest and - especially!
So far, despite careful preparation of materials, failed to create the intended long buffer zone around the reserve.
The reserve consists of three forestry: & quot; brown bears Beach & quot ;, the Upper Lena and Kirenskogo.
It was originally subordinate Glavohote RSFSR, then the Russian authorities for Nature Conservation (SCEP RSFSR Ministry of Environment of the Russian Federation, Russian Goskomekologshiya).
In 2000 he transferred to the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation.
& nbsp; In December 1996, the Baikal-Lena Reserve (along with Barguzin and Baikal) is included in the list of sites of World Cultural and Natural Heritage.
So far, in the territory of the Baikal-Lena Reserve reported (without border taxa) 947 species and subspecies of vascular plants belonging to 355 genera and 90 families.
ecdemic are only 5% of them said that of non-infringement of flora.
The low level adventization Flora B-LGZ retained by the inaccessibility of its territory, limited ways to ground movement of people, the small number of cordons and their location on the periphery of the reserve.
& nbsp; In comparison with other areas of Northern Baikal species richness reserve improved by Ecotone position of its territory on the border of different physiographic and floristic characteristics of natural areas, the rich history of the formation of vegetation from the time of a single flora Angarsk kingdom, the remains of which can be traced
from the Lower Carboniferous (Maine, 1987), and the diversity of current environmental conditions.
In its main features the flora of the reserve is typical of the mountain taiga continental territories of the Asian part of the Holarctic region Circumboreal little autonomous, although it has its specific features.
The structure of three equal leading complexes of flora B-LGZ includes 79% of the species composition of the reserve forest complex brings together 27% of the total number of species, Montana and steppe & ndash;
Compared with the other two complexes, the steppe is the richest: steppe communities, occupying less than 5% of the reserve include a quarter of the species composition of its flora.
Allochthonous and autochthonous trends florogenesis balanced in Montana complex flora, allochthonous prevail in the forest, and autochthonous & ndash;
in the steppe.
The distribution of plants in the reserve uneven.
Some sections contain a set of specific species, t. E. Grow only here and met the rest of the territory.
So, for specific parts of the Baikal are 250 species and subspecies of vascular plants, to the highlands of the Baikal Mountains & ndash;
117, for swimming pools and Lena Kirenga & ndash;
116. & nbsp;
In general, half of the species of flora B-LGZ specific to certain parts of the reserve.
The reasons for this are not only modern physical and geographical conditions, but also historical factors.
The flora of the reserve traced the influence of different areas at different times.
Through the mountainous region of the Baikal Range and becomes highlands, the so-called Great Trans-Asian mountain path, providing linkages with areas of north-east Siberia and the Far East (Malyshev, 1968; Yurtsev, 1968).
The interaction with the flora of the Arctic occurred during the Neogene reconstruction of the climate and its adjoint displacement of vegetation zones, as well as through the Pleistocene periglacial zone (Malyshev, Peshkova, 1984).
The most distinctive floristic complex Reserve & ndash;
steppe & ndash;
detects both features of the ancient ties with the now fragmented steppe territories of Siberia, as well as more distant areas (Europe, Central and East Asia), and signs of prolonged autonomous development in the mountain hollows Angarida conditions.
In addition forest complex flora is dominated by species with wide ranges, including the pronounced European influence.
At the latest stages of the forest flora of the reserve was formed in close cooperation with the floras of North Sayan and Transbaikal.
Montana complex flora B-LGZ heterogeneous: it includes both alpine and Montana species of Siberian origin and migrants, mostly & ndash;
from the north-eastern regions of Asia.
At various points florogenesis indicate relict species: the Miocene-Pliocene steppe linking modern flora of the reserve with Old Mediterranean desert-steppe flora (Allium altaicum, Astragalus chorinensis, Oxytropis peschkovae, Oxytropis popoviana, Euphorbia karoi, Dracocephalum pinnatum, Artemisia obtusiloba subsp.
immoral tertiary & ndash;
contemporaries flora deciduous forests (Isoetes setacea, Polystichum lonchitis, Poa nemoralis, Thalictrum baikalense, Viola dactyloides);
Pleistocene Arctic (Poa arctica) (Ilyin, 1941; Epova, 1956; Peshkov, 1972; Malyshev, Peshkova, 1984; Olonova, 2001) and glacial relicts.
According to the materials design of the Baikal-Lena Reserve in its territory and in the proposed security zone there are at least 320 species of vertebrate animals belonging to 6 classes, 47 orders, 87 families and 190 genera.
& nbsp; In various reservoirs Reserve is home to about 15 species of fish.
In Lena common Arctic grayling, common whitefish, flax, common outrigger and burbot.
Pike and perch are found only in North Lake on Cape deceased.
& nbsp; Even before the creation of the reserve has disappeared from the fish fauna trout and now it is planned to re-acclimatization.
In the mountain lakes inhabited by grayling (including a dwarf form) and Siberian char, and in the rivers meets the Altai minnow.
Amphibians and reptiles have not been studied specifically.
Within the reserve (mainly in the lowlands, steppes, or in the valley of the Lena) and Siberian marked moor frogs and Siberian salamander.
Among the reptiles found two species of lizards (viviparous and quick, both are very rare) and two species of snakes - adder encountered only in the vicinity of the village on the Lena and Chanchur cottonmouth Pallas, common in the western basin of the Lena macroslope Baikal Mountains.
The bird fauna of the reserve has 235 species, of which 146 nesting, and for 29 species nesting supposed to span 50 species of wintering and vagrant - 5 and disappeared one species (eastern bustard).
The most typical bird of the mountain taiga, less common ornithyl complexes wetland, upland steppe landscapes.
Gagaroobraznye, grebes and copepods are represented by a single species.
Black-throated Diver occasionally nest in the valley of the Lena and Horned Grebe and Great Cormorant marked as vagrants (formerly Cormorant at Lake Baikal was known to be very common).
From the wading is not a rarity black stork - nest in the reserve at least 10-15 pairs of & quot; Red Book & quot;
species, and there was a trend to an increase in the number.
Gray cranes are common during the flight, and in a little nest on suitable sites.
At the spring and autumn migration sometimes marked demoiselle and gray herons (Popov et al., 1998).
Waterfowl represented almost all species, typical for the region (Scriabin, 1975; Gagina, 1988), but their number is negligible during the breeding season (usually goldeneye, common merganser, teal and mallard) (Melnikov, Reukov, 1989;
On the shores of Lake Baikal, particularly on capes Big and Small Solontsovaya common White-winged Scoter, relatively rare in other parts of the West Lake Baikal.
Rare nesting shoveler, gadwall and killer whale (Melnikov, Reukov, 1989).
The number of waterfowl during the existence of the reserve increased markedly.
Growing abundance Ogar (5-8 pairs nest) (Melnikov, 1998; Popov et al., 1998).
Among other rare species of waterfowl can be identified zalet white goose and meetings on migration piskulki, kloktun and black ducks (Popov et al., 1998).
Quite a lot of different ducks (mallard, teal, wigeon, tufted duck, goldeneye, etc.), As well as swans, bean geese and mergansers are found in the passage in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal and the nearest water bodies.
On the lagoon small lakes and bays with grassy banks settle on not only many nesting waterfowl, but also a variety of shorebirds (Charadriiformes in total reserve of more than 30), in particular carrier, Wood Sandpiper, Asian and com-venous snipe, plover small.
There you constantly live herring gull and common tern, in the autumn notable cluster.
In the valley of the Lena pronounced (although not very clear) permanent migration route of many species of birds (Melnikov, 1999).
On the shores of Lake Baikal and Caspian tern marked Vagrants ivory gull.
On the high mountain lakes inhabited Dotterel, there are summer meeting snipe, quite common and White-winged Scoter.
Among the rare shorebirds during migration at the shore of Lake Baikal observed kronshnepmalyutka and Long-toed stint.
Birds of prey in the reserve met with about 20 species.
The most characteristic among them the typical inhabitants of the mountain taiga landscapes - hawks and hawk goshawk, common buzzard, black kite, hobby, kestrel.
Earlier in this area was quite common white-tailed eagle (Gusev, 1977), but now he's here for nesting is not marked.
Reserve staff proposed and implemented a program to recover its population structures using artificial nests.
According to the tributaries of the Lena (p. Tongoda) occasionally nest osprey.
In the valley of the Lena found several pairs of Peregrine Falcons.
Winters in the reserve and merlin.
Perhaps nesting golden eagles (separate meetings in the area of ??high-egories).
During the breeding period a merlin and booted eagle.
On the steppe areas of Cape Rytogo possible nesting burial and Saker.
The reserve is home to all kinds of owls that are typical of the Baikal region.
Quite common are the marsh and the long-eared owl, bearded and Ural Owl.
Relatively rare hawk owl, eagle owl, and boreal owl Scops Owl.
In some years, recorded in winter white owl.
Out of the blue for the Baikal coast is typical rock-pigeon, and in the forests of low mountains - a large turtle.
Only in recent years has become a nest here for a new kind of Baikal region - klintuha.
It is characterized by three types of swifts (belopoyasnichny - off the coast of Lake Baikal, in the valley of Black Lena Chaetura in a belt of high mountains), two species of cuckoos (ordinary and dull).
Hoopoe found on rocky sites of the Baikal coast.
Typical seven species of woodpeckers, of which the most numerous great spotted.
Among the chicken birds massive overlooking the mountain taiga belt is grouse, preferring mixed forests with the presence of berries.
It is widely distributed and capercaillie, black grouse while gravitates to the western slopes of the ridge and distributed here mosaic (Stepanenko, 1998).
The rare for reserve residents are bearded, white and Rock Ptarmigan.
The first of these lives on capes Ryty, Shartla, Anyuthe and late, the other two are found in Goltsova zone.
It is very rare breeds quail.
Marked and its winter meeting - 5 de December 1988 at Cape Anyuthe (Popov et al., 1988).
passerines presented about 120 species, among which the most typical inhabitants of the mountain taiga and meadow ernikovyh landscapes.
Near the lake in the thickets of willow and hawthorn nesting shrikes-Shrike, Dubrovnik and other oatmeal (white-nodding, red-haired, gray-haired).
For the lowlands are most common blackbirds (temnozoby, olive, Siberian, motley, Fieldfare et al.), And spotted singing crickets, redstart, various warblers, flycatchers, nightingales (krasnosheyka and blue), buntings, chickadees, swallows, wagtails,
in winter waxwing and crossbills, and several species of corvids: crows, ravens, Daurian jackdaw.
Characteristic of nomadic forms corvids: nutcracker, jay, Siberian Jay.
All these birds find themselves good food and shelter conditions.
The complex passerines mountain taiga belt is typical for the region.
This, above all, Willow tit, Moskovka, nuthatches, several species of boreal warblers, buntings, nightingales, as well as many species listed above for forest lowlands and valleys (corvids, etc.).
Several poorer complex passerines alpine landscapes.
Only here krasnobryuhaya nest and possibly krasnospinnaya redstart, polar bunting, rock pipit, Alpine, pale and Himalayan Whitethroat, Siberian and possibly Himalayan reel, east funnels.
On the steppe areas of the Baikal coast nest horned lark, Wheatear, Isabelline wheatear, pleshanka, motley Rock Thrush, Red-oatmeal and (possibly) Godlewski.
By particularly rare passerines include wren, the wren Yellow-.