Population growth in the late 19 & mdash;
early 20th centuries.
led to the rapid development of the delta.
Warm climate, an abundance of fish and birds attracted here industrialists, hunters, and the common people, looking for & shy; extending food.
About shoals of fish coming into the Volga River to spawn, already legends, but the old-timers still remember what a real Volga Putin.
How much effort, money, energy ought to be & shy; lo expended to bring it all to an end.
The first attempts to take measures to conserve fish stocks were made in the 19th century.
In 1865, in the Volga delta forbidden band has been allocated for the creation of favorable conditions for the reproduction of fish.
Here prohibit & shy; schalos fishing, destruction of & nbsp; reed , grazing.
Psychology industrialist past years, unfortunately, did not differ from modern & shy; tion: income today and at any cost.
Development of land entailed reducing wildlife habitat.
Birds & nbsp;
destroyed in large numbers, especially in connection with the emergence in Russia and abroad fashion feathers egretki Herons and articles of bird skins.
High prices and an almost unlimited demand for feathers and skins turned them into a mass occupation of the workpiece.
In Astrakhan, opened several offices reception with offices in the counties.
In 1903, a French company bought in Astrakhan, about 100 thousand. Bird skins ( Zhitkov , 1914);
in 1907 it was removed and sent to the capital and abroad 1,5 thous. pairs skins pelicans and 3 thous. pairs skins Swans ( Kachioni
It is not surprising that in 1912, according to the B.
M. Zhitkova , & laquo; crafts some bird species on the skin & hellip;
stopped or nearly stopped for extermination.
Collection of eggs and catching moulting birds was conducted on a large scale.
Every spring, at the beginning of the 20th century in the delta collected at least half a million eggs.
Part of them went to the food unfit for food went to the soap factories.
Hunting regulations, and without that has not been rigorous, not respected and effective hunting supervision did not exist.
Became widely practiced burning of last year's reed and herbaceous vegetation .
In the fire burns perished many animals and birds nests;
fire spreads to the willow forests , which served as habitat for many birds and animals .
Deep frustration came and fisheries.
& Laquo; Volga and Caspian fishing industry, one might say, is full of all sorts of abuses and violations of the law & raquo ;, & mdash;
wrote about this H.
Knipovich (1923, p. 79).
At the beginning of 1917 have been fully fished restricted areas Volga delta , over-fishing was carried out everywhere.
Many members of the public tried to raise his voice in defense of nature.
In 1910, at the General Meeting of full members of society of hunters Astrakhan Vladimir A. Khlebnikov has proposed to create in the Volga delta reserve with Zap & shy; RETOM hunting.
His attempt to VA Khlebnikov repeated in 1915, when Peter the Great Society researchers led by Astrakhan region.
& Nbsp; By that time, an expedition of the Zoological Museum of Moscow University under the guidance of prof.
BM Zhitkova in the Volga delta.
Report submitted by the expedition indicates extremely distressed fauna.
Were almost completely, massacre & shy; Lena large and small egrets, spoonbill, ibis, swan-shek & shy; Pun, many species of gulls, terns, grebes .
Became very rare pheasant , hardly meets the following boar .
Save the nature of the delta has become imperative.
Each case must be & laquo; punching & raquo;
and in any case need someone who will bring together like-minded people and will fight to the end.
That & shy; Kim man was VA Khlebnikov .
Again and again he repeats on the & shy; torture organization of the reserve.
In 1918 in Astrakhan State University was opened.
One of the first meeting of the Academic Commission (13 April 1918) on the proposal B.
A. Khlebnikov has been created Commission on the organization of the reserve.
The Commission examined ilmen Damchik , which in 1913 was discovered by one of the last in the thickets of lotus del & shy; those.
In general, the commission's work was a success, especially since the idea of ??establishing a reserve strongly supported NN Pod'yapol'skii & mdash;
Department of Higher School's Commissariat of Education.
It is to him in January 1919 Scientific Commission requested the university petition & shy; Vat before the CPC approval of a plan of creation of the reserve in Astrakhan.
In the same month H.
N. Pod'yapol'skii , visited Moscow and met with the Chairman of the CPC Lenin, who invited him to draft a decree on Nature Protection of the Republic & shy; faces.
January 17 project was handed over to Lenin, and on the same day & shy; radiation back with an indication of the order of the meeting and submit a draft proposal to the Council of People's Commissars by the Commissioner question & shy; illumination is.
This meeting was crucial for reserve affairs, because in January 1919 the first meeting of the commission on the device of reserves created by the People's Commissariat of scientists and naturalists.
Organization Astrakhan Reserve in place actually started with April 1, 1919 April 7, on the recommendation of VA Khlebnikov and Nicholas Lazarev & shy; ca Chugunova decision of the Academic Committee of the University have been appointed the first full-time employees of the reserve:
Konstantin peacock and Ivan Stepanovich Frangulov .
By April 11, 1919 the initial stage of the organization of the reserve has been basically completed: funds were released from the local budget, appointed volunteer first director VA Khlebnikov , a prominent social activist, educator, forester and ornithologist
, has done a lot for the development of the reserve.
April 11, 1919 is considered to be the founding date of the reserve .
It was the first reserve created in the USSR.
In the early years of the overall coordination of the reserve inter-institutional committee chaired by B.
Thus, the development of the case of nature protection and rational use of its resources in this country is closely connected with the Astra & shy; Khan's edge, as initiated by Astrakhan.
On 14 April of the same year under the reserve was assigned territory Trehizbinskogo site .
April 30 & nbsp; K.
K. Peacocks , reported at a meeting of scientists Commission uni & shy; versity of choosing a place to & laquo; zverovogo, bird and fish Commandments & shy; nick & raquo ;.
June 2 College of Land Management approved the request of the University, having made allotment of land in the central part of the delta, which was set up Trehizbinsky site .
The formation was difficult.
In 1922 and 1923.
Financing & nbsp;
almost completely stopped, in some years, it was purely symbolic, but, despite all the turmoil, reserve continued to develop & shy; Xia.
Decorations for the border, build housing, fought with sconces & shy; konerstvom unfolding research.
Organized the first full-time research director of the reserve - Alexander G. Dyunin .
Already in 1923, participates in the Russian National Reserve & nbsp; agricultural and handicraft industrial exhibition.
March 14, 1924 were allocated boundaries Obzhorovsky plots and between channels Kara Buzan and Erik Blinov , an area of ??10, 3 thousand.
In the same year, September 10 was isolated Damchiksky area between the channels & nbsp;
Quick and Koklyuy , an area of ??4.7 thousand. Acres.
Trehizbinsky site is not immediately found its current location.
At the suggestion of B.
A. Khlebnikov , he was allotted the first, but it lasted a year, due to a conflict with the local authorities was eliminated.
It was only in 1927 for Trehizbinki was again defined a brand new place where he is today.
In 1927 & nbsp;
People's Commissars of the RSFSR adopted the first Position about Ast & shy; rahanskom reserve.
Was defined its primary goal & mdash;
& Laquo; preservation of the integrity as areas of pristine nature in the Volga delta with their characteristic flora and fauna & raquo ;.
In the same Regulations was determined the structure of the reserve.
It consisted of three sections: Trehizbinskogo, Damchikskogo and Obzhorovsky.
The total area of ??22.8 thousand. Ha.
The turning point was the 1935, when the reserve was transferred on nations & shy; the state budget and adopted a new Regulation on a conservation & shy; ke.
It is noteworthy that in this Regulations , taken between PA & shy; Denia level of the Caspian Sea, the southern boundary of the reserve Move & shy; schalas after the retreating sea, focusing on the thickets of the earth's & shy; aquatic vegetation.
Thus, the reserve Village & shy; stantly grow in its southern part.
The results of not long in coming.
In 1936, Professor B.
M. Zhitkov , visit the Delta, wrote: & raquo;
species, previously almost extinct in the delta, not only appeared in the reserve, but also multiplied to such an extent and form such clusters, koto & shy; rye on non protected areas of southern floodplains could be seen except a few centuries ago & raquo ;.
By the twentieth anniversary only Damchikskom area were built 23 buildings, on the balance of the reserve stood 7 motorized vessels, the number of staff members has reached 64 units, including & mdash;
20 people were scientific and technical personnel.
All & nbsp;
subsequent history Reserve & mdash;
is the story of the formation, formation and & nbsp;
numerous & nbsp;
changes & nbsp;
our & nbsp;
In 1942, in connection with the military situation, all the documents and archives of the reserve were evacuated to Guriev (where they subsequently lost forever), and its activity is suspended based on the has a master & nbsp;
Office of reserves from 25. VIII № 29 / s and writing Astrakhan District Executive Committee of 11 / IX with / g number 1563 Astrakhan State & nbsp;
Reserve with 16 / IX temporarily ceases to function.
However, the protection of the reserve to maintain, as evidenced by the addition to the order (№ 103):
As directed by the District Executive Committee of 11 / IX № 1563 Guard Reserve in the future (after the transfer) should be Sevkasprybvodom, but with the preservation of the former regime of the reserve.
Fortunately, it did not last long.
Already 21 December 1942 g the new order of the Chief of the Office for national parks, zoos, zoo under the Sovnarkom R. SF SR 10 / XI.
'42 Number 2337 and the letter of the executive committee of the Astrakhan Okrsoveta of People's Deputies of 17 / XII № 1885), & nbsp; the activities of Astrakhan State Reserve is resumed.
In 1951, when carried out mass liquidation Commandments & shy; nicknames, Astrakhan, among other 16 & mdash;
Since 1953 she started & shy; were endless reorganization.
Reserves passed from one department to another, which is not always a positive effect on RA & shy; bot, but, nevertheless, reserved matter in the country has developed.
Forest inventory in 1956 the total area of ??the reserve was determined to be 75, 634 hectares to include adherent land and shallow water area with islands avandeltovymi Makarkin and pancakes.
Since then, this figure has repeatedly changed.
In 1961, when the Soviet government issued a decree on the Elimination of reserves, Astrakhan & nbsp;
in the number of missed.
He was among the few survivors from the close of reserves, but was significantly reduced (12 & nbsp; 234 hectares) in size territory.
According to recent reports, a certain Forest inventory in 2001, the area of ?? Astrakhan Biosphere Reserve takes 67 & nbsp; 917 ha.
The Council of Ministers of the USSR & laquo; On measures to ensure fulfillment of the obligations of the Soviet Party deriving from the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat, on February 2, 1971 & raquo;
Volga Delta, including sections of the Astrakhan Reserve, included in their lists.
In this regard, Astrakhan Oblast Executive Committee in 1976 created a security zone along the eastern border of the aquatic reserve Obzhorovsky area of ??15 thousand. Ha and the southern border water Damchikskogo plot area of ??6 thousand. Ha.
The decision of the Astrakhan Oblast Executive Committee in 1982 along the land borders of the three sites established additional security zones with a total area of ??10 thousand. Ha.
According to the Statutes of the reserve approved by the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR in 1983, Astrakhan Reserve is the nature of the Volga delta, located in the Caspian biogeographic province Palearctic.
Astrakhan & nbsp; Biosphere Reserve is located in the delta of the & nbsp;
Volga, where & nbsp; the great Russian river branches into & nbsp; hundreds of sleeves, ducts, eriks.
In Astrakhan & nbsp;
Reserve from different parts of the world come true connoisseurs of nature to get acquainted with the nature of the protected region: & nbsp;
see unique landscapes of the Volga delta, the fragrance of blossoming lotus & nbsp;
and watch the birds that live here, nest & nbsp; or stop to rest.
Flora Astrakhan Reserve has more than 314 species of vascular plants, belonging to 64 families.
All kinds of flora depending on the water regime and their habitats are divided into the following ecological groups: hydrophilic hygrophilic, mesophilic, xerophilous and halophilic .
The flora of the reserve as part of the plant gene pool of the country has a number of characteristics and properties that have economic value.
For plants with useful properties include: feed & ndash;
118 species, medicinal & ndash;
59, honey & ndash;
41, decorative & ndash;
40 Food & ndash;
26, technical & ndash;
20 efironosnye & ndash;
10, dyeing & ndash;
9, oil & ndash;
Weeds and poisonous account for 77 & ndash;
By the widespread plants, as well as having economic value include white willow (willow) and triandra (Salix alba L., S. triandra L.), <
strong> Dewberry (Rubus caesius L.), cane southern (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.), Typha angustifolia (Typha angustifolia
L.), Calamagrostis Ground (Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth), couch (Elytrigia repens L.), reed canary grass (Phalaroides
arundinacea L.), bentgrass stolonoobrazuyuschaya (Agrostis stolonifera L.), dog-banes Sarmatian (Trachomitum sarmatiense Woodson), Sparganium direct (Sparganium erectum L.
), lotus Caspian (Nelumbo caspica (Fisch. ex DC.) Fisch.), Susak umbrella (Butomus umbellatus L.), rogulnik (
water chestnut, water chestnuts) & nbsp; (Trapa natans L.), nimfeynik schitolistny (Nymphoides peltata SG Gmel.
), Salvinia natans (Savinia natans L.), & nbsp; Spirodela ordinary (Spirodela polyrhiza L.), Lemna minor (Lemna minor L.
), pondweed pronzennolistny and Comb (Potamogeton perfoliatus L., P. pectinatus L.), Vallisneria spiralis (Vallisneria spiralis L.), and
hornwort dark green (Ceratophyllum demersum L.).
The vegetation of the reserve is represented by four types & ndash;
bush, forest, meadows and water.
trees and shrubs
Shrubs in the reserve grouped together & ndash;
It includes the formation willow triandra (belotal ), tamarisk green bay (Tamarix ramosissima Ledb.) And Amorpha fruticosa
(Amorfa fruticosa L.).
It is widely represented formation willow triandra, communities which are confined to the islands and spits, emerging in the mouths of the delta channels and eriks.
Community tamarisk many branches are confined to the salt marshes, the formation of which is due to human and natural factors.
Most of the community tamarisk many branches form complexes with meadow communities halophytic plants.
Much less prevalent formation Amorpha fruticosa, which is represented by individual specimens and small sparse thickets height of 2 & ndash; 3 m. Timed it mainly to high riverbed shafts islands are flooded only in wet years, to Gorelnik (burned forest area) or places of communities
precipitated overripe white willow.
Woody vegetation is part of a group of deciduous riparian forests and presented formation of white willow (vetlyanikami: lowland forb-grass-sedge, forb and forb-blackberry).
Individual community of white willow, occupying estuary spit and islands, over time transformed into a continuous riverine gallery forests.
Formation of a particular forest type is associated with vertical growth riverine areas of the islands.
By riverbed shafts, vertical growth that is weak, develop forb-grass-sedge vetlyaniki, and on the shafts with rapid vertical growth & ndash; mixed grass and forb-blackberry vetlyaniki.
Along with continuous forests that form riverine gallery forests in the process of dying growing willow trees and shrubs formed woodlands typical of the upper (downstream) part of the reserve.
This relict plant known from the Cretaceous period.
There are several hypotheses appearance of a lotus in the Volga delta.