State Nature Reserve "Azas" is located in the north-east of Tuva, in Todzha Basin, in the origins of the largest rivers in Siberia - Yenisei.
It was formed the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR January 11, 1985, its area was 337,290 hectares while.
The purpose of the reserve was to preserve and study in the natural state of typical and unique ecological systems Todzha Basin and its flanking mountain uplifts protection of the gene pool of flora and fauna of Tuva and the whole mountains of southern Siberia.
The history of the Reserve is closely linked to the discovery, study and adoption of measures to protect the native population of beavers.
Milestones creation of the reserve
The end of XIX - early XX centuries.
Known researchers Asia (NM Martianov, FP Koppen, GE Grum Grzhimailo, D. Carruthers, A. Ya Tugarinov), studying and watching the pool Upper Yenisei large rodents with valuable fur, began to publish
The first information about the features of life of beavers.
In the magazine "Our hunting" first talked about the project beaver reserve in Uryankhay region.
"Kundus, Saryg-Kundus" as they called beaver locals Tuvinians revered as a sacred animal.
Since ancient times, the hunt for him was strictly prohibited, which undoubtedly contributed to the survival of the population of beavers in Todzha.
Numerous expeditions scientists Todzha basin yielded strictly scientific facts about verhneeniseyskih beavers.
In particular, the biologists interested in the conditions of survival of a rare animal in the harsh climate of northern Siberia.
Known in the USSR zoologist, professor of Irkutsk Agricultural Institute VN Skalon wrote a monograph "beaver North Asia", it proposed the creation of a scientist reserve in Tuva ASSR to preserve the unique colony of beavers and their habitat.
Azas on the river expedition LS Lavrov was first produced zhivootlov animals and on the basis of the collected materials defined taxonomic status verhneeniseyskogo beaver.
Highlight the new subspecies - Beaver Tuvan, in 1983 in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as nahdyaschiysya endangered subspecies.
In the valley of the Azas organized Azasskoy beaver reserve on an area of ??7200 hectares.
Tuva beaver population is sharply reduced, at this time it has about 35-40 individuals per Azas river.
On the possible threat of extinction of animals in the All-Russian Society for Nature Conservation and the Geographical Society of the USSR VN Skalon addressed a petition for urgent action to save the animals.
The results of field research in Central design and survey expedition Glavohoty RSFSR (Ivashchenko BP et al., With the scientific guidance of Zykov KD) was the development of the project organization Reserve "Azas" in the basins of Azas, Bash-Khem and the headwaters of the river.
Bii-Khem on an area of ??280 thousand. Ha.
In agreeing to the ministerial level the project was rejected.
Creation in the valley.
Azas state comprehensive national reserve "Azas".
Its area then consisted of 180 thousand. Ha.
West Siberian Design Expedition (Aleksandrov, S., et al. Under the scientific guidance of Fedossenko AK) has developed a new project of the reserve in the Tuva ASSR, which has a more compact and optimized with respect to the boundaries of the landscape.
After years of scientific debate, endless approvals and consents first began operating in Tuva Reserve - "Azas".
Its area was 337,290 hectares.
In the following years continued legal settlement boundaries of the reserve.
National environmental interests in the face of the reserve are faced with economic interests of the former farm "Toora-Khem".
As a result, despite the legitimate opposition to the reserve, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Tuva ASSR 1989 and the addition to it in 1991 on withdrawal of the 49,500 hectares of the reserve in favor of the farm "Toora-Khem" and its partial compensation - 12,600 hectares due to Goltseva
Reserve lost highly arrays cedar in the basin.
Bash-Khem necessary to preserve the gene pool of some commercial and rare species.
Been rejected as deer wintering areas at the western border of the reserve.
Area of ??the reserve was the 300,390 hectares.
Since 1991, the reserve "Azas" operates within the given limits, although the decision was not supported by the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR and the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation appealed.
Formally, there is only one existing State Act for the right to use the land on 25. 04. 1988, fixing the border in 1985 and refined area of ??the reserve - 333,884.01 hectares.
On the basis of the existing Act was made surveying natural area, natural land reserve was put on topographic surveys.
Performed the state registration of the right of permanent indefinite use of the land area of ??333,884 hectares in accordance with the cadastral passport.
Thus, the reserve back to the borders of 1985.
The reserve territory stretched in the latitudinal direction for 150 km with a width of 20-35 km and includes major basins Azas river, the left bank of the river and the right bank of the river Sorug Bash-Khem.
The reserve is subordinate to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.
The central manor is located in the village.
Toora-Khem district of Tuva Todzha 30 km from the border of the reserve.
Over the 28 years of its existence Reserve "Azas" harmoniously blended into the socio-economic structure Todzha area.
Changed economic situation, and the perception of the reserve population.
Part of the problems by adjusting the position of FGBU GPP "Azas".
Today Reserve continues to solving legal and technical-organizational issues for the transition of real work on the basis of the boundaries of the reserve of natural land area of ??333,884 hectares, officially transferred the federal government bodies in constant perpetuity.
The vegetation of the reserve due to its geography and rather harsh Siberian climate.
Within the reserve are two main vertical zones: the forest (950-1900 m. Above sea level. M.) And mountain-tundra (1900-2600 m. Above sea level. M.), Fragments of steppe belt are common in the western part of the reserve on the southern slopes
to an altitude of 1100 m. The forest area is occupied by 73.8%, and the bald mountain tundra placer - 15.5%.
The remaining plots - marshes, meadows, prairies, ponds.
The main tree species of the reserve - cedar (siberian pine), Siberian larch and Scots pine.
In addition to pine, landscape-role play in the reserve representatives of the families of flowering plants birch, willow and heather.
Higher vascular flora of the reserve includes 944 species (including 13 species included in the Red Book).
In the reserve there are 10 species of the Red Book of the Russian Federation (2008): polushnik bristly (Isoёtes setacea Lam.), Wrestler Pasco (Aconitum pascoi Worosch), Altai rhubarb (Rheum compactum L.), Dagan fritillary (Fritillaria dagana Turcz. Ex Trautv)
, a real lady's slipper (Cypripedium calceolus L.), lady's slipper macranthon (C. macranthon Sw.), lady's slipper vzdutotsvetkovy (S. ventricosum Sw.), Epipogium leafless (Epipogium aphyllum Sw.), neottiante cucullata (Neottianthe cucullata (L.
) Schlecht.), feather grass (Stipa pennata L.).
Flora includes about 40 regionally rare species, some of which are included in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Tuva: Plants (1999): lily quadrangular (Nymhaea tetragona Georgi (1775), pure white lily (N. candida J. et C. Presl (1882)
, Nuphar pumila (Nuphar pumila (Timm) DC. (1821). The list of the 244 species of mosses include 70 hepatic and 174 leafy moss species. Among the moss described species new to science: Didimodon hedysariformis T. Otn., Orthotrichum furcatum T. Otn
. 11 species of moss are rare for Siberia. The reserve is found 134 species of lichens, including eight rare for Siberia.
The fauna of the reserve is typical of the regions of the Altai-Sayan mountain region.
It currently has 51 species of mammals (including 23 species included in the Red Book).
The most remarkable species among mammals - Tuvan beaver (Castor fiber tuvinicus Lavrov, 1969).
Tuva beaver - endemic to Tuva, the main population is located on the river.
Azas protected reserve.
During the existence of the reserve and then reserve "Azas" its population increased by more than 3 times and stabilized to the 90 th year at the level of 70-80 individuals in the 19-22 settlements.
performed relocation of beavers with 17 p.
Azas on the river.
Belin (Kaa-Khem district).
After reacclimatization Tuvan beaver population in the district.
Azas in 2009-2012.
close to the original - 56-61 individuals in the 20-24 settlements.
Tove lives just now 100-120 individuals Tuvan beaver.
The Reserve plays an important role in the protection of endangered species and maintaining a number of major game animals.
Usually on its territory a meeting with maral, elk, brown bear, sable, wolf.
In addition to the beaver in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation included caribou (forest subspecies).
The total list of avifauna in the reserve includes 230 species, of which 138 - breeding, and taking into account the buffer zone - 254 species.
The most richly represented passerine, Charadriiformes, birds of prey and waterfowl.
20 rare species of birds are the objects of the Red Book of the Republic of Tuva (2002), of which 10 are listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.
Optimal conditions for nesting in the reserve are white-tailed eagle, osprey, owls, taiga bean and snipe.
Reptiles are represented by 3 species: lizard, cottonmouth Pallas and adder.
Of amphibians inhabit two species - Siberian salamander and frog Rana.
Ichthyofauna consists of 15 species, among which the most rare trout, listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Tyva.
The territory of the reserve is located in the central part of the basin Todzha the north-east of Tuva and elongated in the latitudinal direction along the river.
The reserve is located entirely in the area of ??dissemination of former glaciation that created the scenic landforms.
Todzha bottom basin rises from west to east from 850 to 2000 meters above sea level, and is framed by its uplands with heights 2300-2900 meters.
The geographical coordinates of PA Central North East South West
Latitude 52 ° 30 '52 ° 43' 52 ° 33 '52 ° 19' 52 ° 29 '
Longitude 97 ° 35 '98 ° 02' 98 ° 43 '96 ° 51' 95 ° 23 '
Around the reserve established a two-kilometer buffer zone with a total area of ??90 thousand sq. M.
Todzha Basin - a huge intermontane depression within the Altai-Sayan mountain country.
This is a unique catchment feeding sources of the largest rivers in Siberia - Yenisei.
Her enormous hydro enclosed in a dense river network and numerous lakes.
The general directions to the location with the park authorities.
travel to the capital of the Republic of Tuva - Kyzyl any means of transport (plane, bus, taxi from Abakan - 460 km) from the town of Kyzyl up with.
Toora-Khem ground transportation to mostly dirt road Kyzyl - Boyarovka - Myung - Toora-Khem.
Distance of 250 km, travel time - 6-8 hours.
The area of ??the reserve is located in the east of s.
Toora-Khem 38 km by road or 35 km ground-water, begins with the protected waters of the lake.
The climate is sharply continental Todzha basin, moderately humid.
Low mountainous rim of the basin to the west and northwest, sometimes reduced to 1,300 meters (Amylsky pass), does not preclude the north-west winds carrying moist Atlantic air.
Additional moisture creates local rainfall due to heavy evaporation from lakes and swamps.
Great influence on the climate of high-altitude zones.
According to long-term average weather station data Toora-Khem characterizing lowlands reserve, the minimum temperature in January reaches minus 54 ° C.
Over the past 15 years, extremely low temperatures were below minus 49 ° C.
The average daily temperature in January is -28,7 ° C, in July - + 14,6 ° C.
Annual air temperature is -5,5 ° C.
Cool summers, frequent summer frosts.
The frost-free period - 52 days.
The sum of average daily temperatures above 10 ° C is equal to 1094 ° C, the average annual rainfall - 343 mm, 60% of which falls in summer.
Midlands and highlands are characterized by a relaxed continental and increased rainfall to 600-800 mm.
Phenological winter in the low comes in late October, early November is set permanent snow cover.
Height of snow in January and February 25-30 cm, Medium - 80 cm at the upper boundary of the forest - 100 cm. The snow cover occurs on average 162 days and the end of March.
Snowmelt ends by mid-April, in the midlands - by the end of May, in the highlands, it stretches until mid-July.
The vegetation in lowland landscapes begins an average of 24 of April.
In mid-May at the stage of green spring leafs trees and shrubs.
The final stage of spring - predlete - celebrated in late May flowering bird cherry in the river valleys, most of the berry blossoms.
Summer is short - no more than two months.
His feature - flowering wild rose in the second decade of June, and in mid-August, the forest is full of yellow birch strands, marking the beginning of the golden autumn.
By the end of the first decade of September fully brighten deciduous trees and shrubs.
The vegetation period ends September 10th.
Since mid-September, daily temperatures are below + 5 ° C, regular frosts occur quickly turn yellow larch forming glubokoosenny appearance of the landscape.
In the first half of October to the end of subsidence larch needles comes pre-winter, the landscape becomes gray and almost silent.
In the highlands of spring and summer is very compressed, background summer minimum temperature does not exceed 3 ° C.
Frosts are likely at any time.
Vegetation here comes in the middle of June.
Summer is short, in early August yellow birch rotundifolia (ernika) and fade mountain meadows, indicating the start of autumn.
The geological structure of the territory involved Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks: sandstones, conglomerates, limestones, schists, gneiss, porphyry, granite and granodiorite intrusions.
In the east, Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks overlain by a thick sequence of basalts and tuffs in phase Anthropogenic volcanism.
Most of the territory is covered with a cover of moraine and fluvioglacial the Quaternary sediments.
Todzha Basin by hypsometric location, climate and vegetation is midland character.
Floor of the valley rises from west to east from 850 to 2000 meters above sea level.
Hollow framed uplands with heights 2300-2900 m belonging to the three mountain systems.
In the south of the mountain ranges soar hr.
Academician Obrucheva in the west and north-west - Western Sayan, in the north-east and east - Eastern Sayan.
The absolute height difference on the reserve from 944 m. To the west up to 2600 m in the eastern mountainous part, where the highest peak - 2622 meters above sea level.
In the buffer zone is located Shivit volcano, the height of 2769 m. Near the eastern border of the reserve stands one of the highest peaks of the Eastern Sayan - Topographers' Peak (3044 m).
The reserve is located in the area of ??dissemination of former glaciation in the Quaternary period, created a diverse landforms.
All mountain uplift on its territory belong to the system of Bii-Khem plateau.
Alpine ridge Ulugh Arga (2200-2400 m) is bordered by the left bank of the river in the upper reaches of Azas.
To the east of the volcanic plateau extends Sai-Taiga, gradually turning into Great Sayan Ridge.
Plateau feeds numerous rivers originate Azas, Sorug and Bii-Khem.
Above the plateau towering mountains, volcanoes, shield array Sorug-ingots-Uzyu - 2517 m., Shivit Taiga - 2769 m. Their slopes are handled by a glacier.
Pronounced punishment, troughs, mountain ridges.
In common carts lakes.
For the volcanic plateau and ridge Ulugh Arga characteristic alpine bald type of relief with alpine forms.
Converts to the slopes of the river valleys have dramatic glacial erosional dissection.
To the west ridge.
Ulug-Arga decreases and becomes low (1600-1900 m) ridge-Kadir Egi-taiga, is a watershed of rivers Azas and Bash-Khem.
Relief - midland erosion.
Occupies a special place between the rivers Azas, Khamsara and Sorug.
In the upper and middle reaches of the river.
Azas it is a Mid-ridge-hilly plain with elevations of 1300-1800 m. The prevailing ekzaratsionnye glacial landforms: elongated along the movement of the glacier ridges and hills, trough valleys, ekzaratsionnye ledges.
In depressions developed moraines.
In the lower reaches of the river.
Azas on the area between the widespread glacial-accumulative Education: outwash terraces, of course-moraine ridges, eskers, Kama and others. Relief - lowland hilly moraine with heights of 950-1300 m. Numerous lakes and sphagnum bogs.
Here are the largest lakes of the reserve.