Formed: April 16, 1932.
area: 881 238 hectares, including the waters of Lake Teletskoye - 11757 hectares.
The main ecosystems: Siberian taiga, lakes, midlands and lowlands taiga, subalpine and alpine middle and high mountains, tundra-steppe highland tundra middle and high mountains, glacial-nival highlands.
Location: Reserve is located in the north-eastern part of the Altai Republic, on the territory of Turachakskiy and Ulagan areas.
Central Estate Reserve is located in the village of Yaylyu head office - in the city of Gorno-Altaisk, the capital of the Altai Republic.
Altai State Nature Reserve - a unique specially protected natural territory of Russia, the object of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, includes a portion of the waters of Lake Teletskoye - the pearl of the Altai Mountains, the "little lake" Western Siberia.
Is one of the first places among the Russian reserves on Biological Diversity.
The main purpose of the reserve - to save precious and rare beauty of Lake Teletskoye, its landscapes, protection of cedar forests, salvation is on the verge of extinction important game animals - sable, elk, deer, and others, as well as
permanent inpatient study of the nature of the region as a whole.
Altai Reserve also ensures the preservation and study of natural processes and phenomena, genetic fund of flora and fauna, species and communities of plants and animals, typical and unique ecological systems.
According to geomorphological zoning the entire territory of the reserve belongs to the Altai province in the country "Mountains of southern Siberia."
Along the borders of the reserve has high ranges in the north - Abakan (2890 m above sea level. M.), In the south - Chikhacheva (3021 m above sea level. M.), In the East - Shapshalskogo (3507 m above sea level. M.).
area bounded on the west by river valleys Chulyshman, Karak and Teletskoye Lake.
Altai Reserve is located in the center of the Altai-Sayan mountain country.
This vast area of ??mountains, pine forests, alpine meadows and mountain tundra, turbulent rivers and lakes stretches for 230 kilometers.
The reserve territory gradually rises in the south-east.
Throughout the mountains springs, streams with clean, tasty and cold water.
In the watershed to pay the usual alpine lakes.
The biggest of them - Dzhulukul, more than 10 kilometers long;
it is located at the headwaters Chulyshman, at an altitude of 2200 meters.
Dzhulukul lake - a unique reservoir of Altai Reserve, habitat, nesting various representatives of the world of birds, spawning of valuable fish species of the Altai Mountains.
All mountain lakes Altai Reserve (occupy the whole area of ??15 thousand. Km2) are very beautiful, with emerald blue clear water, picturesque beaches.
The most common tree species in the Altai Reserve are: cedar, fir, larch, spruce, pine, birch.
Pure pine high mountain forests - the pride of the reserve.
Cedars here reach 1.8 meters in diameter and the age of 400-450 years.
In general, a rich and diverse flora of the reserve has 1,500 species of vascular plants, fungi - 111 species and 272 species of lichens.
Algae in the reserve 668 known species of lichens seven species included in the Red Book of Russia: pulmonary Laborie, Laborie mesh, stikta bordered etc...
The species composition of plants and animals is interesting for its diversity.
The complex topography with elevations up to 3500 m, a variety of climatic and natural-historical conditions create a significant diversity of vegetation Altai Reserve.
From well-known in the Reserve 1,500 species of vascular plants occur relics and endemics.
A significant area of ??the Altai Reserve is located at the junction of mountain ranges Altai, Sayan, Tuva, the complexity of natural and historical development and biogeographic boundaries, a variety of environmental conditions is determined solely by the wealth of wildlife reserve.
On conservation area can be found and the inhabitants of high latitudes (reindeer, ptarmigan) and resident Mongolian steppes (gray marmot), and many typical "taiga men."
In Teletskoye Lake region of the reserve are found all fishing mammals of southern taiga.
The most abundant species - sable and red deer, musk deer live, wild boar, elk, deer and others.
Predators live here: bear, wolf, badger, wolverine, lynx and otter.
In the summer on the shores of Lake Teletskoye can observe numerous, extraordinarily beautiful waterfalls, which flows into the lake.
Most waterfalls are inaccessible to the public, except for the main waterfall is Teletskoye Lake - "Corbu", an annual gathering with his foot a few tens of thousands of tourists during the summer season.
In the visitor center of the Altai reserve "Altai ail" in the village Yaylyu can get acquainted with the traditional culture of indigenous people Tubalars.
The climate of the reserve belongs to the continental mountain and at the same time.
The first is related to the geographical location of the territory in the center of the Asian continent.
The climate here is influenced by the interaction and cyclonic circulation, Asian anticyclone and arctic air mass.
The second factor is the location of the conservation area in the Mid-alpine zone of the Altai mountain system.
This provision defines the altitudinal zonation of climate and a great variety of micro-climatic conditions.
A significant role in shaping the environment plays a relief specifics of individual regions.
Air masses passing over the region to interact with mountainous terrain;
while low clouds usually concentrated along the high ridges and streams of air rushing through deep river valleys, often changing its direction.
Highland massifs opposing the movement of air masses saturated with water, a significant portion of rainfall intercepted.
Over wide valleys in mountain systems, heated by the sun, cloudiness often rises and dissipates.
The climatic conditions of the reserve, as a whole, are seasonal weather formation.
The weather conditions of autumn-winter period is greatly influenced by the Asian anticyclone.
In warm weather conditions during the cyclonic activity determined by western transfer.
Southern areas of the reserve are affected by the climate of Mongolia with its arid conditions.
Climatic conditions also determine: a significant difference in air temperature on the tops of high mountains and in the valleys of middle, high level of solar radiation in winter, well-developed mountain-valley circulation of air, a significant amount of rainfall.
The climate of the reserve is characterized by a long frosty winters, humid summers and short, long and cold spring and autumn.
The average temperature over the last 50 years:
The warmest month - July +16,8 ° C
The average temperature over the last 50 years:
The coldest month - January -8,3 ° C
The average annual rainfall 865.3 mm
In the north-east of the reserve limits Abakan Range (city Sadonkaya), in the north - the ridge TOPOT (north of the river. M. Mionok), in the south-east and east - Shapshalskogo Ridge (city Tashkyly-kai), on
south - the spurs and ridges Chikhacheva Chulyshman (g Bogoyash).
Mountain ranges stretching from the southeast to the northwest, changing the direction of the width of the lake Teletskoye the northern and north-east.
Geological structure of the area is very difficult, that poredelyaetsya his long multistage evolution.
Fundamentals of relief were created by tectonic movements of Paleozoic age (Kaleodonskoy Chertsinskoy and folding).
With Caledonian stage involves accumulation of thick carbonate and flysch strata of the Paleozoic, the introduction of granitic intrusions.
In Chertsinskom stage was the finalization of the structure of the territory.
The closure of the geosyncline (movable region of the crust) in the Late Paleozoic led to the creation of the geological foundations of relief with faults, determine the orientation of the elements of the orography.
Then, at the end of the Mesozoic - early Paleogene, at equilibrium of endogenous and exogenous processes started denudation alignment.
To the relief of the reserve is characterized by the presence of preserved sites of ancient peneplain (surface aligned with relief) on modern ranges, despite intense dismemberment and destruction.
Chulyshman surface of the plateau, for example, is a relic of low hills, largely modified by glacial processes.
With regard to the glaciation of the reserve, the time of its occurrence and types of glaciation there are different opinions - isolated from 2 to 4 ice ages.
The presence of two glaciations - cover and valley - is consistent with studies of glaciation valley.
Biya and the presence of a tertiary relict vegetation, preserved in the basin.
Kyga (so-called "Teletskoje refugium"), which indicates AV Kuminova (1957) when considering the cedar forests of the Altai [Project organization and development of forestry in the Altai State Reserve, 1982].
The relief of the reserve is characterized by a variety of forms: high alpine plateau-like changes to the uplands, broad valleys and deep gorges and kanonovidnymi has a vertical drop of 400 to 3500 m above sea level.
The characteristic feature of the relief is the presence of three zones: Dividing Range with heights in the range 2200-2900 (rarely up to 3100-3500 m) above sea level.
m., surfaces or alignment Highlands (according to other authors' area of ??sloping ridges "or" plateau-like uplands "), which allocated the remaining surfaces of two layers: the bottom at an altitude of 1600-1800 m and the top at an altitude of 1900-2100 m between them is more complex
large shapes and steep terrain zones (according to other authors' deeply dissected relief ") - limiting the valley of large rivers and Teletskoe lake heights within which does not exceed 1000 m. The lower boundary is his Teletskoe lake.
Height above sea level of the last 436 meters.
Top - horizontal 1500-1600 m. The belt of alpine ridges occupies the highest part of the ridge, composed mainly of metamorphic rocks of the series (schists) with intrusions magmoticheskih rocks (granite, granodiorite, diorite).
Belt alpine ridges allocated within the Abakan Range, ridges Curcuru and Katu-Yaryk and Shapshalskogo.
Its shape, these ridges are required activity ancient glacial erosion and contemporary processes of weathering.
In the modeling of topography played a significant role Quaternary glaciation, erosion and frost weathering and atmospheric cyclonic activity.
The main forms of relief are Shapshalskogo peaked ridge peaks and Carling, cars, trough valleys, landslides, debris, frost solifluction education.
For Dzhulukulskoy basin is characterized by moraine hills and ridges with plenty of lake basins.
Adjacent to the lake.
Dzhulukul territory with pologovolnistymi landforms found kriostrukturnye form a layer of seasonal thawing, which are represented by spots, medallions.
Over long distances stretch thicket rotundifolia, gnarled, rugged birch, moss cover on the raw areas and clusters of alpine willows.
Places in the tundra on the mountain slopes begin to wedge areas of the forest of larch and cedar, often divorced from the main arrays.
Relatively smooth topography of the second zone occupied by the northern half of the reserve coniferous forests in the south - the tundra, abruptly gives way to steep shape of the first zone.
For the latter characterized by deeply incised river valleys, gorges with cliffs and talus, hanging valleys minor tributaries, waterfalls.
Belt Alpine ridges fully occupied rocky tundra.
Surface area alignment takes on the reserve dominant position.
Surface alignment of the upper level or adjacent to the alpine ridges or flat tops are low ridges.
These include the domed top of the ridge Corbu and high highlands south of the reserve - Chulyshman plateau.
The latter has a flat swampy surface with clear traces of ancient glacial activity in the form of piles of rounded boulders (Fig. 5P), curly rocks, numerous small lakes with flat beaches, formed as a result of damming moraine.
As well as in the field of alpine ridges is dominated by frost weathering processes.
All surface alignment of high employment gravelly-lichen and moss-shrub tundra.
The surface of the alignment of the lower level are located along the slopes of the Abakan Range, south of the ridge Curcuru in prichulyshmanskoy parts.
It also includes some flat-topped loaches in the pool reggae Kamga.
Surface alignment abruptly break, forming a sharp transition to the lower belt relief.
The total area of ??these landforms is low, despite their significant high-rise stretch.
These include large slopes of river valleys and steep banks of Lake Teletskoye.
These rocky slopes, at the top of the treeless below to forest or prairie areas.
This is the youngest form of relief, are currently undergoing drastic changes.
Steep slopes trade valleys are extremely favorable place for the occurrence of landslides.
All steep slopes intersected by innumerable gutters, narrow rytvinkami - stony paths falling boulders.
These gutters, overgrown with grass and shrubs are clearly distinguished lighter color on a dark green background of woody vegetation.
The results are often large rockfall talus cones, sometimes reaching an enormous size.
So in the valley.
Chulyshman against villages Koo MS Kalecki (1939) described the talus cone that rises 200 meters above the bottom of the valley.
A very peculiar element of the relief are the river valleys.
The origins of most rivers begin on flat top of the plateau of the small lakes and valleys of the upper reaches of flat and treeless wetlands (with the exception of the northern part of the reserve of the river, originating from the mountains, forested. [Annals of Nature Reserve Altai, 1932-1935, 1959].
Hydrology and hydrography
The territory of the reserve limit in the west and the river Chulyshman Teletskoe lake.
The right half of the lake basin and Teletskoje Chulyshman, as well as the upper reaches of the Big Abakan make up the hydrographic network of the reserve.
The whole territory of the reserve is literally riddled with large and small mountain streams.
These rivers are fast and usually in the lower reaches of rapids.
In the middle and lower reaches of the river valleys are narrow, steep, for rapid and fast, often at this pruning rivers are continuous chain of waterfalls.
For example on the river Chulcha.
Often they are cast down from a height of 600-800 m, representing a chain of successive cascades of water.
Most of the lakes and tributaries Teletskoje Chulyshman for this reason bezrybno.
The same can be said about the lake, located in circuses.
Many of the rivers of the reserve in relation to the Teletskoye lake or large rivers, tributaries of which they are have a hanging valley terminates at the confluence of waterfalls.
This character of the valley has such p.
Kishte flowing from the ridge Corbu.
Kamga River and its tributaries Shaltan B. and M. Shaltan, Kokshe tributaries Kotagach and Tuzaktu, Chelyush, Boscone, Kyga tributaries Bayas, Kolyushtu, carcass and Kairi Chulcha tributaries Suryaza, Saygonysh, Yahonsoru, carrageenan and Curcuru, with Shavla
tributaries of the Kyzyl-bumps, Ongurash, Mendukem are the largest tributaries of Lake Teletskoye.
But the biggest tributary - the river Chulyshman, its tributaries and the Ozunu Bogoyash.
Chulyshman source of the river is Lake Dzhulukul lying 220 km from Lake Teletskoye, at an altitude of 2176 m. Pool p.
Chulyshman is 17,600 km 2 [Annals of Nature Reserve Altai, 1932-1935, 1959].
The area of ??the lake is a Dzhulukul lacustrine plateau.
Throughout its length it bears the characteristics of the glacial landscape [Annals of Altai nature reserve, 1959].
The area of ??the lake basin Dzhulukul 29,5km.
The length of the lake, as the distance between the two most distant points is 10.8 km (the distance between the origins of the river. Chulyshman and the mouth of river. Upper Chulyshman).